IELex

woman

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Description

1. Men are doing [X], women are making [Y].
2. Women bear children, men do not.

Adult human being of the female sex, antonymous to ‘man’. Should be kept apart from ‘female’ (of any species) if the latter is distinct from ‘woman’ (female human). Context No. 1 is culturally conditioned, in that X and Y should be understood as designations of typical male / female occupations for the given society (e.g., ‘hunting’, ‘cooking’, etc.). If, instead of a general term for ‘woman’, one finds differentiation by age groups, the respective lexemes for the age of ca. 20–45 must be treated as synonymous. If, instead of a general term for ‘woman’, there is an opposition by marital status (‘unmarried’ ~ ‘married’ ~ ‘widowed’), it is advisable to use the word for ‘married woman’ as the most prototypical concept. Contexts are the same as in No.51 ‘man (male)’. (Kassian et al. 2010)

Language list: all
Wordlist: all

ID Language Source Form Phonological Form Notes Cognate Class
114 Proto-Indo-European h₁esor- View
114 Proto-Indo-European *gʷḗn D View
80 Hittite *kuwanz the same as 'wife' /lexeme ... D View
133 Luvian wānas D View
133 Luvian wanattis D View
81 Tocharian A kuli Buck gives /lexeme/23253/ Q View
82 Tocharian B klyiye cf. Toch. A Q View
88 Albanian grua Same as /lexeme/586/ 'wife ... C View
88 Albanian zonjë 'lady', 'madam', doubtful connection to ... View
143 Standard Albanian grua Variant = grue. Also 'wife'. See ... C View
2 Albanian Sicily grua From PAlb *grāwā related to ... C View
4 Albanian Corinth grua Same as /lexeme/1165/ 'wife ... C View
6 Albanian Tosk grua Same as /lexeme/1563/ 'wife ... C View
173 Mycenaean Greek *ku-ne *gune̞ː Attested as derivational base in ... D View
110 Ancient Greek γυνή ɡynɛ́ː G.sg. γυναικός; cf. /lexeme ... D View
152 Tsakonian γουναικα D View
32 Greek γυναίκα ʝiˈne̞ka a-stem noun adapted from accusative ... D View
31 Greek Lesbos GUNAIKA D View
129 Classical Armenian կին kin Identical to /lexeme/28662/ 'wife'. D View
8 Armenian Eastern կին kin Identical to /lexeme/1951/ 'wife'. D View
7 Armenian Western կին gin D View
128 Avestan nāiri N View
128 Avestan ǰainiš D View
128 Avestan strī L View
136 Sogdian ’sṭryc Sogdian L View
75 Wakhi AURUT split from DKB (M) View
75 Wakhi OJIZ split from DKB Af View
75 Wakhi XUINUN split from DKB (R) View
9 Baluchi ZAL D View
118 Kurdish afret (M) View
118 Kurdish jin D View
137 Zazaki ǰinēk D View
72 Tajik ZAN D View
54 Persian ZAN D View
77 Waziri SHEZA A View
1 Pashto SEDZA A View
138 Shughni bēwā Ah View
138 Shughni kaxōy Ai View
138 Shughni γ̆inik D View
138 Shughni awrát (M) View
139 Sarikoli ɛwrat < Arabic (M) View
52 Ossetic binojnaɡ binojnaɡ Same as 'wife'/lexeme/11762/. View
124 Ossetic Iron wuš wuš P View
125 Ossetic Digor wosɐ wosɐ P View
141 Kata-viri ǰukur S View
154 Vasi-vari westí L View
105 Vedic Sanskrit jánī also 'wife' D View
162 Pāḷī itthī O View
41 Khaskura AIMAI O View
51 Nepali SWASNI split from DKB (T) View
51 Nepali AIMAI split from DKB O View
51 Nepali STRI split from DKB (L) View
51 Nepali TIRIYA split from DKB (L) View
106 Assamese māiki mānuh 'female+being'?, cf. MANIS, MANUS ... O View
106 Assamese tirotā U View
102 Oriya mɔhiḷa mɔhiɭa V View
102 Oriya maikinia maikinia cf. also /meaning/wife/ O View
102 Oriya stri stri (L) View
10 Bengali MEELOK W View
111 Bihari istrəgən istrəgən AF strī (L) View
111 Bihari kanīyā (X) View
111 Bihari máugī comp. Bih. MAI 'woman's ... O View
144 Magahi औरत ɔrət̪ (M) View
104 Marwari lugāī Y View
104 Marwari əurət əurət (M) View
104 Marwari nar nar ‘women’ (N) View
35 Hindi STRI split from DKB (L) View
35 Hindi oret əʊrət̪ split from DKB (M) View
119 Urdu عَورت ˈʔɔ.ɾət̪ (M) View
103 Sindhi nāre (N) View
103 Sindhi zālũ comp. /lexeme/2151/ D View
103 Sindhi aurata (M) View
103 Sindhi maiə maiə O View
43 Lahnda TRIMMET Z View
53 Punjabi nari naɾi (Aa) View
53 Punjabi TIVI split from DKB Ab View
53 Punjabi ORET split from DKB (M) View
33 Gujarati STRI (L) View
50 Marathi bāī ba͜i: related to many words for ... O View
50 Marathi strī stri: (L) View
40 Kashmiri TRIY split from DKB (L) View
40 Kashmiri ZANANA split from DKB, AF: JANANA ... (D) View
65 Sinhalese ISTRIYAK split from DKB (L) View
65 Sinhalese GANI split from DKB D View
34 Romani Greece ROMNI JUVLI ROMNI = 'Gypsy woman' (Turner 1931 ... Ac View
100 Old Church Slavonic жєна ʒɛnɑ D View
95 Serbo-Croatian žena ˈʒɛ̌na D View
15 Bulgarian жена ʒɘˈna D View
92 Macedonian жена ˈʒena D View
60 Russian женщина 'ʐɛnʃina D View
55 Polish kobieta kɔˈbjɛta J View
16 Belarusian жанчына ʐanˈtʂɨna D View
73 Ukrainian жінка ˈʐinka D View
66 Slovak žena ˈʒɛna D View
18 Czech žena ˈʒɛna D View
48 Sorbian Upper žona ˈʒɔna D View
47 Sorbian Lower žeńska ˈʐeɲska An alternative lexeme is 'žona ... D View
97 Slovenian žena ˈʒɛ̌ːna D View
108 Old Prussian gennan acc., AF genno, cf. WIFE ... D View
44 Latvian siẽviẽte I View
46 Lithuanian moteris ˈmo:tʲɛrʲɪs 'mother' > 'woman', cf. /cognate/79 ... View
109 Old Norse kvennmaðr ˈkvenːˌmaðr D View
109 Old Norse kona ˈkona D View
36 Icelandic kona ˈkʰɔːna AF: KVENNMAOR D View
36 Icelandic kvenmaður ˈkʰvɛnmaːðʏr D View
23 Faroese kona, kvinna kʰoːna, kʰvɪnːa D View
23 Faroese dama ˈdɛaːma (K) View
58 Norwegian Riksmal kvinne ˈkʋɪ̀nːə D View
58 Norwegian Riksmal dame ˈdàːmə (K) View
159 Stavangersk dama ˈdɑ̀ːma (K) View
159 Stavangersk kvinne ˈkʋɪ̀nːə D View
157 Old Swedish kona ˈkoːna D View
157 Old Swedish qvinna ˈkvinːa D View
69 Swedish kvinna ˈkvɪ̀nːa split from DKB D View
69 Swedish dam dɑ:m split from DKB (K) View
71 Swedish Vilhelmina KVINA AF: KVINFOLK KVINFALK D View
70 Swedish Uppland KVINNA D View
145 Elfdalian kelingg ˈkɛ̀lɪŋg Ag View
145 Elfdalian kwinnfuok D View
20 Danish kvinde ˈg̥ʰvenə D View
20 Danish dame ˈd̥ɛːmə (K) View
158 Danish Fjolde kvind kvinʲ D View
160 Old Gutnish quinna D View
161 Gutnish Lau kvinnfolk ˈkvɪnːˌfolk D View
99 Old English wīf H View
99 Old English cwene D View
22 English woman 'wʊmən H View
26 Frisian minske 'me:ⁿskə Also 'person'. AF: mins. View
21 Dutch vrouw vrɑu B View
24 Flemish VROUW B View
83 Afrikaans VROU B View
87 Sranan OEMAN H View
126 Old High German wīb H View
126 Old High German quena D View
27 German Weib vaĭp H View
27 German Frau fraŭ B View
86 Pennsylvania Dutch WEIBSMENSCH H View
120 Luxembourgish Fra B View
121 German Switzerland frou B View
107 Gothic qinō D View
130 Oscan usurs ?; acc. pl. View
112 Latin mulier ˈmulier G.sg. mulieris E View
112 Latin fēmina ˈfeːmina EXCLUDED. (G) View
17 Catalan dona ˈdɔnə K View
56 Portuguese mulher muˈʎɛɾ Same word as for wife. E View
68 Spanish mujer mu'xeɾ Also 'wife'. E View
61 Sardinian Cagliari FEMMINA G View
62 Sardinian Logudoro FEMINA G View
63 Sardinian Nuoro EMINA G View
85 French Creole Dominica FAM G View
76 Walloon FEUME G View
25 French femme fam G View
57 Provencal femna ˈfenno Changed from FEMO. G View
42 Ladin DUONNA split from DKB K View
42 Ladin FEMNA split from DKB G View
146 Dolomite Ladino signorå Ad View
146 Dolomite Ladino fèmenå Same form in online dictionary ... G View
123 Romansh signura Ad View
123 Romansh femna G View
123 Romansh dunna Identical to /lexeme/26700/ 'wife'. K View
122 Friulian siore Ad View
122 Friulian femine G View
122 Friulian done K View
39 Italian donna 'dɔnna K View
59 Romanian muiere muˈjere E View
59 Romanian femeie feˈmeje fr. Lat. FAMILIE 'household' (Buck ... G View
74 Vlach MBLARE E View
140 Gaulish bnanom The cited form is genitive ... D View
127 Old Irish ben bʹen D View
149 Old Cornish benen D View
149 Old Cornish gr(u)eg Ae View
101 Middle Cornish gwrēk (Ae) View
101 Middle Cornish ben bɛ:n D View
148 Old Breton ban- D View
148 Old Breton gruec Middle Breton. Ae View
172 Middle Breton gurec, greuc, grec, grouec, groec ˈgurec The original meaning seems to ... Ae View
172 Middle Breton moues, maoües ˈmoues, ˈmaues Has fewer attestations than gurec. F View
12 Breton maouez ˈmawɛs, ˈmowǝs F View
150 Old Welsh gwreic Middle Welsh. Ae View
150 Old Welsh ben D View
79 Welsh dynes split from DKB, prob. fem ... View
79 Welsh benyw D View
79 Welsh gwraig split from DKB, prob. fem ... Ae View
38 Irish bean bʲan̪ˠ D View
38 Irish baineann (D) View
115 Scottish Gaelic bean b̊ɛn (D) View
115 Scottish Gaelic boireannach D View
147 Manx ben D View
5 [Legacy] Albanian T grua Same as /lexeme/1363/ 'wife ... C View
5 [Legacy] Albanian T femër Loan < Lat fēmina 'id'. View
29 [Legacy] Greek K GUNE D View
28 [Legacy] Greek D GUNAIKA D View
30 [Legacy] Greek Md GUNAIKA D View
64 [Legacy] Serbocroatian ZENA D View
113 [Legacy] Serbian žena also 'wife', cf. 197 D View
89 [Legacy] Bulgarian P ZENA D View
49 [Legacy] Macedonian ZENA D View
94 [Legacy] Russian P ZENSCINA D View
93 [Legacy] Polish P KOBIETA J View
90 [Legacy] Byelorussian P ZANCYNA D View
98 [Legacy] Ukrainian P ZINKA D View
19 [Legacy] Czech E ZENA D View
96 [Legacy] Slovak P ZENA D View
91 [Legacy] Czech P ZENA D View
67 [Legacy] Slovenian ZENSKA D View
45 [Legacy] Lithuanian O ZMONA fem. derivation fr. ZMOGUS 'man' View
11 [Legacy] Brazilian MULHER E View
142 [Legacy] German Munich Frau B View
84 [Legacy] French Creole C FAM G View
14 [Legacy] Breton St gwreg Ae View
14 [Legacy] Breton St maouez 'mɔwɛs F View
13 [Legacy] Breton Se MOEZ F View
78 [Legacy] Welsh C BENYW D View
37 [Legacy] Irish A BEAN D View