IELex

thou

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Description

Stylistically neutral 2nd sg. person; various honorific forms must be excluded. Direct stem and indirect stem of the same pronoun can be included as synonyms (for languages which distinguish between the two on a paradigmatic level). (Kassian et al. 2010)

Language list: all
Wordlist: all

ID Language Source Form Phonological Form Notes Cognate Class
114 Proto-Indo-European *túh₂ A View
80 Hittite zīk A View
133 Luvian ACC A View
133 Luvian A View
135 Palaic A View
81 Tocharian A tu A View
82 Tocharian B tuwe A View
88 Albanian ti From PAlb *tū continuing IE ... A View
143 Standard Albanian ti Basic, informal form. A View
143 Standard Albanian ju Polite, also 2pl. View
2 Albanian Sicily ti From PAlb *tū continuing IE ... A View
4 Albanian Corinth ti From PAlb *tū continuing IE ... A View
3 Albanian Gheg ti From PAlb *tū continuing IE ... A View
6 Albanian Tosk ti From PAlb *tū continuing IE ... A View
110 Ancient Greek σύ sý G.sg. σοῦ A View
152 Tsakonian εκιου A View
32 Greek εσύ e̞ˈsi A View
31 Greek Lesbos ESU A View
129 Classical Armenian դու dow Exceptionally from PIE *t-, presumably ... A View
8 Armenian Eastern դու du A View
7 Armenian Western դուն tʰun View
128 Avestan θβąm A View
128 Avestan tūm A View
131 Old Persian tuvam A View
131 Old Persian θuvām acc. A View
136 Sogdian tγw Sogdian A View
174 Khotanese thu A View
75 Wakhi TU A View
9 Baluchi THAU A View
118 Kurdish tu A View
137 Zazaki ti A View
72 Tajik tu t̪u A View
54 Persian to t̪o A View
77 Waziri TE A View
1 Pashto TE A View
138 Shughni tu, tōθ A View
139 Sarikoli tɛw A View
52 Ossetic dy A View
124 Ossetic Iron dy dy A View
125 Ossetic Digor du du A View
141 Kata-viri tʷi A View
154 Vasi-vari iyū A View
153 Askunu A View
105 Vedic Sanskrit tvám A View
162 Pāḷī tuvaŋ A View
41 Khaskura T A View
51 Nepali timi timi split from DKB E View
51 Nepali ta tə̃ split from DKB A View
106 Assamese tumi hon. E View
106 Assamese tay sg, non-hon. A View
106 Assamese āpuni to a superior, Western Assamese F View
106 Assamese ti Mayang A View
102 Oriya apɔṇɔ-nkɔ apɔɳɔ-nkɔ obl., apɔṇɔ (nom.) F View
102 Oriya tumɔ tumɔ polite oblique, tume (nominative) E View
102 Oriya to to fam. obl., tu (nom.) A View
10 Bengali tumi 'θʊmi: Familiar. E View
111 Bihari əhã hon. View
111 Bihari tõ(h) mid-hon. A View
144 Magahi तु t̪ʊ View
151 Bhojpuri tõ, tú A View
104 Marwari tũ tũ direct, tɛ (obl.) A View
35 Hindi tu t̪uː A View
119 Urdu تُو t̪u A View
103 Sindhi tũ tũ A View
43 Lahnda TU A View
53 Punjabi tu tũ A View
33 Gujarati TU A View
50 Marathi tu: A View
40 Kashmiri TSAH *ty > ts unexplained (Turner) A View
65 Sinhalese UMBA E View
34 Romani Greece TU A View
100 Old Church Slavonic ты A View
95 Serbo-Croatian ti tîː A View
15 Bulgarian ти ti A View
92 Macedonian ти ti A View
60 Russian ты A View
55 Polish ty tɘ̟ A View
16 Belarusian ты A View
73 Ukrainian ти A View
66 Slovak ty ti A View
18 Czech ty A View
48 Sorbian Upper ty tɘ̟ A View
47 Sorbian Lower ty tɘ̟ A View
97 Slovenian ti tîː A View
108 Old Prussian toū A View
44 Latvian tu A View
46 Lithuanian tu A View
109 Old Norse þú θuː A View
36 Icelandic þú θu: Replaced THU. A View
23 Faroese tʰʉuː A View
58 Norwegian Riksmal du dʉː A View
159 Stavangersk du dʉː, dʉ A View
157 Old Swedish thu θuː A View
69 Swedish du dʉː A View
71 Swedish Vilhelmina DU A View
70 Swedish Uppland DU A View
145 Elfdalian du dʉː A View
20 Danish du du A View
158 Danish Fjolde du du A View
161 Gutnish Lau däu dɛu A View
99 Old English þū A View
22 English you B View
22 English thou ðaʊ (A) View
26 Frisian du AF: DU. Changed from DOU. A View
21 Dutch je split from DKB B View
21 Dutch gij ɣɛi split from DKB B View
24 Flemish GY split from DKB B View
24 Flemish U split from DKB B View
83 Afrikaans U split from DKB B View
83 Afrikaans JY split from DKB B View
87 Sranan JOE A View
126 Old High German dih A View
126 Old High German A View
27 German du du: A View
86 Pennsylvania Dutch DU A View
120 Luxembourgish du A View
121 German Switzerland du A View
107 Gothic þū A View
130 Oscan tiium A View
132 Umbrian tiu, tiom acc. A View
112 Latin tuː G.sg. tuī, D.sg ... A View
17 Catalan tu tu Removed TEU, TON, TA. A View
56 Portuguese tu tu A View
68 Spanish tu Informal. A View
68 Spanish usted us'teð Formal. View
61 Sardinian Cagliari TUI A View
62 Sardinian Logudoro TUE A View
63 Sardinian Nuoro TUE A View
85 French Creole Dominica U D View
76 Walloon TI A View
25 French tu ty A View
57 Provencal TU, TE A View
42 Ladin TU A View
146 Dolomite Ladino tu A View
123 Romansh ti A View
122 Friulian tu A View
39 Italian tu tu A View
59 Romanian tu tu A View
74 Vlach TINE A View
140 Gaulish ti A View
127 Old Irish tu: A View
127 Old Irish -t- t View
101 Middle Cornish ty tɪ: A View
101 Middle Cornish tʃi tʃi (A) View
148 Old Breton te A View
172 Middle Breton te ˈte A View
12 Breton te A View
150 Old Welsh ti A View
79 Welsh ti A View
38 Irish t̪ˠuː Removed TUSA. A View
115 Scottish Gaelic thu hu, u A View
147 Manx oo A View
5 [Legacy] Albanian T ti ti From PAlb *tū continuing IE ... A View
29 [Legacy] Greek K ESU, SO A View
28 [Legacy] Greek D ESU, SU A View
30 [Legacy] Greek Md ESU, SE A View
64 [Legacy] Serbocroatian TI A View
113 [Legacy] Serbian ti tîː A View
89 [Legacy] Bulgarian P TI A View
49 [Legacy] Macedonian ti ti A View
94 [Legacy] Russian P TY A View
93 [Legacy] Polish P TY A View
90 [Legacy] Byelorussian P TY A View
98 [Legacy] Ukrainian P TY A View
19 [Legacy] Czech E TI A View
96 [Legacy] Slovak P TY A View
91 [Legacy] Czech P TY A View
67 [Legacy] Slovenian ti A View
45 [Legacy] Lithuanian O TU A View
11 [Legacy] Brazilian TU A View
11 [Legacy] Brazilian você voˈse Informal in BP, formal in ... View
142 [Legacy] German Munich du < Pr. Germ. *þū 'you' (thou). A View
84 [Legacy] French Creole C U W D View
14 [Legacy] Breton St te te: A View
13 [Legacy] Breton Se TE A View
78 [Legacy] Welsh C TI A View
37 [Legacy] Irish A TU A View