IELex

say

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Description

1. What did you say? [= a request to repeat something that was misheard]
2. He said that he would come tomorrow.

A neutral designation of a single speech act. Should be distinguished from durative action (‘to talk’), but also not confused with certain special markers of direct speech, e.g., Old Indian iti. (Kassian et al. 2010)

Language list: all
Wordlist: all

ID Language Source Form Phonological Form Notes Cognate Class
80 Hittite tēzzi X View
133 Luvian āssatti ? View
81 Tocharian A träṅkäṣ Y View
82 Tocharian B weṣṣäṃ (obl.) Z View
88 Albanian thom From athematic PAlb *tsānsmi, etymologically ... C View
143 Standard Albanian them Orel gives thom. Connected to ... C View
2 Albanian Sicily thom From athematic PAlb *tsānsmi, etymologically ... C View
4 Albanian Corinth thom From athematic PAlb *tsānsmi, etymologically ... C View
3 Albanian Gheg thom From athematic PAlb *tsānsmi, etymologically ... C View
3 Albanian Gheg dëftoj Borrowed < Rom *indictāre. View
6 Albanian Tosk thom From athematic PAlb *tsānsmi, etymologically ... C View
173 Mycenaean Greek pa-si pʰaːsí 3.sg.pres.act. in ... Al View
110 Ancient Greek λέγω légɔː Inf. λέγειν I View
152 Tsakonian νιου Cf Gk ομιλώ 'I am ... Ac View
152 Tsakonian αου Cf Gk λαλεω 'I talk ... Ad View
32 Greek (ο)μιλω, μιλαω EXCLUDE. (Ac) View
32 Greek λέω ˈleo̞ Alternate form λέγω /ˈleɣo̞/ I View
32 Greek λαλώ EXCLUDE. (Ad) View
31 Greek Lesbos LEGO I View
129 Classical Armenian ասեմ asem D View
8 Armenian Eastern asel ɑˈsɛl D View
7 Armenian Western USELL D View
128 Avestan aoxte Ab View
128 Avestan mraoiti M View
131 Old Persian θātiy (θah-) Ah View
75 Wakhi XAN Ai View
9 Baluchi GUSHAGH, GUSTA, GWASHAGH, GWASHTA L View
118 Kurdish gotin L View
137 Zazaki vātiš View
72 Tajik guftan ɡuftæn L View
72 Tajik GAP ZADAN L View
54 Persian GOFTAN L View
77 Waziri WEYEL A View
1 Pashto VAJEL A View
138 Shughni gāp dedōw View
139 Sarikoli lev : levd View
52 Ossetic dzuryn dzurɨn Removed (NYXAC, KAENYN). P View
124 Ossetic Iron žɐʁ- žɐʁ- P View
125 Ossetic Digor zɐʁ- zɐʁ- P View
154 Vasi-vari (i)lye/u Ae View
153 Askunu lāl- Related to /cognate/4132/? Ae View
105 Vedic Sanskrit vadati (Aa) View
105 Vedic Sanskrit praṇigad to speak , say , declare, AF ... View
105 Vedic Sanskrit ah to speak, say, call, state… View
105 Vedic Sanskrit bhaṇ to speak , say to, call ... (K) View
105 Vedic Sanskrit brávīti M View
105 Vedic Sanskrit kathayati (R) View
105 Vedic Sanskrit vívakti (Z) View
162 Pāḷī vatti (√vac) Z View
41 Khaskura BHANNU K View
51 Nepali BHANNU K View
106 Assamese View
102 Oriya kɔhiba kɔhiba ‘speak, say’, inf. J View
10 Bengali KOOA E View
111 Bihari kəhəb kəhəb J View
144 Magahi कहना kəhənɑ J View
151 Bhojpuri kah J View
104 Marwari keh- keh- AF kahaṇō J View
104 Marwari bol-ɳo bol-ɳo ‘to speak’ K View
35 Hindi kahna kəhna J View
35 Hindi bolna bolna View
119 Urdu کہنا kɛhnə J View
103 Sindhi cəv- cəv- ‘said’ cəyō View
103 Sindhi kahaṇu to say' J View
103 Sindhi ḡālhā-inu ‘to speak’ View
103 Sindhi čūṇu View
43 Lahnda AKHEN E View
53 Punjabi KENA J View
33 Gujarati KEHEWU J View
50 Marathi mhanne mʰəɳ'ɳe K View
50 Marathi bolne 'bolɳe K View
40 Kashmiri WANUN View
65 Sinhalese kiya kija Removed -nawa. J View
34 Romani Greece PHENAV K View
100 Old Church Slavonic рєщи rɛʃti Alternative lexemes are 'повѣдѣти' and ... H View
95 Serbo-Croatian kazati ˈkǎːzati W View
95 Serbo-Croatian reći ˈrɛ̂tɕi H View
15 Bulgarian казвам ˈkazvəm W View
92 Macedonian каже ˈkaʒɛ W View
60 Russian сказать ska'zatʲ W View
55 Polish powiedzieć pɔˈvjɛdʑɛtɕ Perfective form, imperfective: 'mówić' with ... U View
16 Belarusian сказаць skaˈzatsʲ W View
73 Ukrainian сказати skaˈzatɪ W View
66 Slovak povedať ˈpɔvɛdac U View
18 Czech říct r̝iːtst H View
48 Sorbian Upper prajić ˈpʀajitʃ Aj View
48 Sorbian Upper rjec ʀɛts H View
47 Sorbian Lower groniś ˈɡrɔɲiɕ Ak View
97 Slovenian reči rɛ̂ːtʃi H View
108 Old Prussian gerdawi 1sg. View
44 Latvian saka B View
44 Latvian RUNAT View
44 Latvian tèic T View
46 Lithuanian sakyti sɐˈkʲi:tʲɪ Also 'to tell'. B View
46 Lithuanian tarti X View
109 Old Norse kveða ˈkveða (R) View
109 Old Norse segja ˈseɣja B View
36 Icelandic segja ˈseiːja Also 'to tell'. B View
23 Faroese siga ˈsiːja B View
58 Norwegian Riksmal si siː B View
159 Stavangersk seia ˈsɛɪ̀a B View
157 Old Swedish sighia ˈsiɣja B View
69 Swedish säga ˈsɛ̀jːa B View
71 Swedish Vilhelmina SAGA B View
70 Swedish Uppland SAJA, SAGA B View
145 Elfdalian saja ˈsɑ̀jɑ B View
145 Elfdalian låta ˈlɔ̀ːtɑ No available cognate category for ... Ag View
20 Danish sige si: B View
158 Danish Fjolde sej sej B View
160 Old Gutnish queþa infinitive not attested R View
160 Old Gutnish segia B View
160 Old Gutnish telia infinitive not attested Af View
161 Gutnish Lau sägä ˈsɛːɡɛ B View
99 Old English sægþ B View
22 English to say seɪ B View
26 Frisian sizze 'sɪzə, 'se:zə B View
21 Dutch zeggen 'zɛɣə(n) B View
24 Flemish ZEGGEN B View
83 Afrikaans SE B View
87 Sranan TAKI View
126 Old High German quidit R View
126 Old High German sagēt B View
27 German sagen 'za:gn̩ B View
86 Pennsylvania Dutch SAWG B View
120 Luxembourgish soen View
121 German Switzerland säge B View
107 Gothic qiþiþ R View
130 Oscan deíkum inf. View
112 Latin dicere ˈdiːkere dīcō, dīcere, dīxī, dīctum F View
17 Catalan dir di F View
56 Portuguese dizer diˈzeɾ F View
68 Spanish decir de'θiɾ F View
61 Sardinian Cagliari NAI N View
62 Sardinian Logudoro NARRER N View
63 Sardinian Nuoro NARRERE N View
85 French Creole Dominica DI F View
76 Walloon DIRE F View
25 French dire diʀ F View
57 Provencal DIRE F View
42 Ladin DIR F View
146 Dolomite Ladino dir F View
123 Romansh dir F View
122 Friulian F View
39 Italian dire 'dire F View
59 Romanian a spune a 'spune < Lat. EXPONERE (Ciorănescu 2002: 739) View
59 Romanian a zice a ziˈtʃe F View
74 Vlach ZYKU F View
140 Gaulish labaro- Reconstructed form, based on attestations ... G View
127 Old Irish labraithir laβrəθʹərʹ (G) View
127 Old Irish as·beir asˈbʹerʹ Possible root in IE *bher- ... Q View
101 Middle Cornish cows (S) View
101 Middle Cornish cewsel AF kensel (S) View
101 Middle Cornish leverel lɛ'vɛrɛl G View
172 Middle Breton lauarez laˈvaːreð G View
12 Breton lavared laˈvaːred G View
79 Welsh dweud Aa, O View
79 Welsh siarad ˈʃarad View
38 Irish deir Present root of abair 'say' (Q) View
38 Irish abair Verbal noun rá, present root ... Q View
38 Irish labhair (G) View
115 Scottish Gaelic can Rather 'to sing'? View
115 Scottish Gaelic labhair (G) View
115 Scottish Gaelic abair Q View
147 Manx gra / abbyr Q View
5 [Legacy] Albanian T thom From athematic PAlb *tsānsmi, etymologically ... C View
29 [Legacy] Greek K LEGO I View
28 [Legacy] Greek D LEO I View
30 [Legacy] Greek Md LEGO, LEO I View
64 [Legacy] Serbocroatian KAZATI W View
113 [Legacy] Serbian kazati kǎːzati to say, reckon' W View
113 [Legacy] Serbian govoriti to speak' V View
113 [Legacy] Serbian reći rêtɕi to say/tell/utter H View
89 [Legacy] Bulgarian P KAZVAM W View
49 [Legacy] Macedonian KAZE W View
49 [Legacy] Macedonian RECE H View
49 [Legacy] Macedonian IZUSTI View
49 [Legacy] Macedonian VELI View
94 [Legacy] Russian P SKAZAT W View
93 [Legacy] Polish P RZEC H View
90 [Legacy] Byelorussian P KAZAC H View
98 [Legacy] Ukrainian P SKAZATY W View
19 [Legacy] Czech E POVIT U View
19 [Legacy] Czech E REKNUT H View
96 [Legacy] Slovak P MLUVIT M View
91 [Legacy] Czech P RICI H View
67 [Legacy] Slovenian RECI H View
45 [Legacy] Lithuanian O SAKYTI B View
11 [Legacy] Brazilian DIZER F View
142 [Legacy] German Munich sagen < Pr. Germ. *sagjan- ‘to say ... B View
84 [Legacy] French Creole C DI F View
14 [Legacy] Breton St lavarout la'va:rut Blažek gives 'lavared'. G View
13 [Legacy] Breton Se LARET G View
78 [Legacy] Welsh C DWEUD, DYWEDYD Aa, O View
37 [Legacy] Irish A RADH prob. cogn. with 'sing' in ... View