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Cognate judgements are added on this page, but deleted by the lexeme view (use the button)


1. I do not understand [in response to a question].
2. You do not / did not see [X].
3. He does not / did not love [X].

The basic negation of an assertion (indicative, not prohibitive). Used with the most simple or statistically frequent verbal forms (e.g., Present Indefinite for Modern English). If different tense / aspect etc. forms use different negative markers and no preferences can be easily formulated, the suppletive variants should be treated as synonyms. In languages that use a special negative verbal stem, this particular stem should be used. Should be strictly separated from the negative answer “No”. (Kassian et al. 2010)

Language list: all
Wordlist: all

ID Language Source Form Phonological Form Notes Cognate Class
114 Proto-Indo-European *ne, *ney A View
114 Proto-Indo-European *mē (F) View
80 Hittite natta A View
133 Luvian nāwa A View
134 Lycian ne A View
135 Palaic ni A View
81 Tocharian A mā F View
82 Tocharian B mā F View
88 Albanian nuk From PAlb *nuka, cf such ... A View
143 Standard Albanian nuk < Pr. Alb. *nuka, composed of ... A View
2 Albanian Sicily nuk From PAlb *nuka, cf such ... A View
4 Albanian Corinth jo Borrowed from Germ ja via ... (A) View
4 Albanian Corinth mos Prohibitive form. From PAlb *mātš ... (F) View
4 Albanian Corinth nuk From PAlb *nuka, cf such ... A View
3 Albanian Gheg nuk From PAlb *nuka, cf such ... A View
6 Albanian Tosk nuk From PAlb *nuka, cf such ... A View
6 Albanian Tosk mos Prohibitive form. From PAlb *mātš ... (F) View
6 Albanian Tosk jo Borrowed from Germ ja via ... View
173 Mycenaean Greek o-u- ou̯ Particle used for negating a ... B View
110 Ancient Greek μή mɛː Particle for negation of prohibitive ... (F) View
110 Ancient Greek οὐ General particle used to negate ... B View
152 Tsakonian μη F View
152 Tsakonian δεν E View
152 Tsakonian ω B View
32 Greek μη(ν) mi(n) (F) View
32 Greek δεν ðe̞n E View
32 Greek όχι EXCLUDE. (B) View
31 Greek Lesbos DEN E View
129 Classical Armenian ոչ očʰ B View
8 Armenian Eastern ոչ voʧʰ Martirosyan prefers an "inner-Armenian interpretation". B View
7 Armenian Western VOCH B View
128 Avestan nōiṯ A View
131 Old Persian naiy A View
136 Sogdian L’ /nē, nā/ Sogdian; Arameogram with alternate pronunciations A View
75 Wakhi NE A View
9 Baluchi NA, N A View
118 Kurdish ne A View
118 Kurdish na A View
72 Tajik NA, NE A View
54 Persian NA A View
77 Waziri NA A View
1 Pashto NA A View
138 Shughni na A View
139 Sarikoli nay A View
52 Ossetic nae, naetae næ, nætæ A View
124 Ossetic Iron nɐ/ma nɐ/ma A View
125 Ossetic Digor nɐ/ma nɐ/ma A View
154 Vasi-vari nă, nä A View
153 Askunu ne, nă A View
105 Vedic Sanskrit A View
162 Pāḷī na A View
51 Nepali NA A View
106 Assamese no- besides na-, nā, ni-, nu- ... A View
106 Assamese nai, nɛ nai, nɛ A View
102 Oriya nahĩ nahĩ AF nɔ- (before verbs) A View
10 Bengali NA A View
111 Bihari nəi nəi A View
144 Magahi View
104 Marwari koni koni unmarked neg. part. View
104 Marwari nĩ nĩ subjunct., imp., cond., neither…nor ... A View
35 Hindi nehi nəɦĩː Removed NA. A View
119 Urdu نہیں nəhĩ A View
103 Sindhi A View
43 Lahnda NE, NI A View
53 Punjabi NEI, NA A View
33 Gujarati NEHI A View
50 Marathi nāhī, na 'naɦi:, nə A View
40 Kashmiri NA A View
65 Sinhalese NAHA A View
34 Romani Greece IN, NI A View
100 Old Church Slavonic нє A View
95 Serbo-Croatian ne A View
15 Bulgarian не A View
92 Macedonian не ne A View
60 Russian не nʲɛ A View
55 Polish nie ɲɛ A View
16 Belarusian не nʲɛ A View
73 Ukrainian не A View
66 Slovak nie ɲiɛ A View
18 Czech ne A View
48 Sorbian Upper nje- nĕɛ A View
47 Sorbian Lower nje- ɲɛ- A View
97 Slovenian ne A View
108 Old Prussian ni A View
44 Latvian ne A View
46 Lithuanian NE- (PREFIX) A View
109 Old Norse né neː AF ne, proclitic (A) View
109 Old Norse ekki, eigi ˈekːi, ˈɛiɡi emphatic, also nothing, AF eigi C View
109 Old Norse -a, -at, -t a AF at, enclitic (A) View
36 Icelandic ekki ˈɛʰcːɪ C View
23 Faroese ikki ˈɪtʃʰːɪ C View
58 Norwegian Riksmal ikke ˈɪ̀kːə C View
159 Stavangersk ikkjeˌ kje ˈɪçːə, çə C View
157 Old Swedish äkke ˈækːe C View
69 Swedish inte ˈɪ̀ntə Removed ICKE, EJ. C View
71 Swedish Vilhelmina INTA, INT, IT C View
70 Swedish Uppland INTE C View
145 Elfdalian inte ɪ̀ntɛ Unstressed form: "it" C View
20 Danish ikke eg̥ʰə, eg̥ʰ C View
158 Danish Fjolde ek C View
160 Old Gutnish ecci C View
160 Old Gutnish ai C View
161 Gutnish Lau intä ˈintɛ C View
161 Gutnish Lau (v)ick (v)ɪkː C View
99 Old English ne A View
22 English not nɒt A View
26 Frisian nee ne: Added second -e. A View
21 Dutch niet nit A View
24 Flemish NIET A View
83 Afrikaans NIE A View
87 Sranan NO A View
126 Old High German ni A View
27 German nicht nɪçt A View
86 Pennsylvania Dutch NET A View
120 Luxembourgish net A View
121 German Switzerland nid A View
107 Gothic ain AF ainata A View
107 Gothic ni A View
130 Oscan nei A View
132 Umbrian neip A View
112 Latin nōn noːn Adv. Regular negative of a ... A View
17 Catalan no no A View
56 Portuguese não nɐ̃ũ Removed NEM. A View
68 Spanish no no A View
61 Sardinian Cagliari NO A View
62 Sardinian Logudoro NON A View
63 Sardinian Nuoro NO A View
85 French Creole Dominica PE D View
76 Walloon NENI A View
25 French non nɔ̃ A View
57 Provencal NOUN, NANI A View
42 Ladin NA, NOAT, NUN A View
146 Dolomite Ladino A View
123 Romansh nun A View
123 Romansh na ... betg A View
123 Romansh bricha < *brik-: Lomb brisa. View
123 Romansh buc < *bik. View
122 Friulian no A View
39 Italian no, non nɔ, non A View
59 Romanian nu nu A View
74 Vlach NU A View
140 Gaulish ne A View
127 Old Irish nʹi: A View
101 Middle Cornish ny AF nag (before vowel) A View
101 Middle Cornish ni(ns) (A) View
148 Old Breton ni / ne A View
148 Old Breton ni / ne View
172 Middle Breton ne (... quet) ne ... ket Verbal negator used in main ... A View
172 Middle Breton na, nac na, nac EXCLUDED. Verbal negator used in ... (A) View
12 Breton ne ... ket ne ... ket Ne is the negator used ... A View
12 Breton na, nag ... ket na, nac ... ket EXCLUDED. Verbal negator in subordinate ... (A) View
150 Old Welsh ni A View
79 Welsh ni A View
38 Irish nʲiː A View
38 Irish cha This may be the Swadesh ... (B) View
115 Scottish Gaelic cha xa Removed final -n. B View
115 Scottish Gaelic cha ni (A), (B) View
147 Manx cha B View
147 Manx ny (A) View
5 [Legacy] Albanian T nuk From PAlb *nuka, cf such ... A View
29 [Legacy] Greek K ME F View
29 [Legacy] Greek K DEN E View
28 [Legacy] Greek D DEN E View
28 [Legacy] Greek D ME F View
30 [Legacy] Greek Md OCHI B View
30 [Legacy] Greek Md DE E View
64 [Legacy] Serbocroatian NE A View
113 [Legacy] Serbian ne ne A View
89 [Legacy] Bulgarian P NE A View
49 [Legacy] Macedonian NE A View
94 [Legacy] Russian P NE A View
93 [Legacy] Polish P NIE A View
90 [Legacy] Byelorussian P NE A View
98 [Legacy] Ukrainian P NE A View
19 [Legacy] Czech E NE A View
96 [Legacy] Slovak P NIE A View
91 [Legacy] Czech P NE A View
67 [Legacy] Slovenian NJE A View
45 [Legacy] Lithuanian O NE A View
11 [Legacy] Brazilian NAO A View
142 [Legacy] German Munich nicht A View
84 [Legacy] French Creole C PA D View
14 [Legacy] Breton St ne ne A View
13 [Legacy] Breton Se NE...KET A View
78 [Legacy] Welsh C NID A View
37 [Legacy] Irish A NI A View