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wordlist: ‘all’

Cognate judgements are added on this page, but deleted by the lexeme view (use the button)


1. Come here, I want to talk to you!
2. I live here but my brother lives in the neighbouring village.

A complex case, since in a great part of the world’s languages the pronominal systems of spatial deixis are much more complex than the binary opposition here ~ there in Modern English. Such systems can include several degrees of proximity (both on the horizontal and vertical axis), references to the location of the speaker and the addressee, or indication of some special features of the object (e.g., animate/inanimate or visible/invisible). It is recommended to try to reveal the most basic binary opposition between ‘here’ (close) and ‘there’ (far away). If this is completely impossible, several (standardly three) pronouns should be listed as synonyms. Elicitation may be facilitated by accompanying deictic gestures.

Language list: all
Wordlist: all

ID Language Source Form Phonological Form Notes Cognate Class
80 Hittite kā B View
133 Luvian zāwi(n) B View
134 Lycian ebei View
81 Tocharian A tṣaṃ View
82 Tocharian B tane N View
88 Albanian KETU C, N View
143 Standard Albanian këtu < Pr. Alb. * ka tu, including ... C, N View
2 Albanian Sicily XTU C, N View
4 Albanian Corinth KETU C, N View
3 Albanian Gheg KETU C, N View
6 Albanian Tosk KETU C, N View
110 Ancient Greek ἐνθάδε entʰáde D View
110 Ancient Greek ἐνταῦθα entáù̯tʰa D View
32 Greek εδώ e̞ˈðo̞ H View
31 Greek Lesbos EDO H View
129 Classical Armenian աստ ast View
8 Armenian Eastern aysteł AY+S+? (see Martirosyan 2010 ... B, J View
7 Armenian Western HOS View
128 Avestan iδa P View
131 Old Persian idā P View
136 Sogdian ’mδ Sogdian Q View
75 Wakhi DREM, HADREM split from DKB R View
75 Wakhi YEM, YAEI split from DKB J View
9 Baluchi EDHA P View
137 Zazaki nāzā S View
137 Zazaki injā (W) View
137 Zazaki tiyā P View
72 Tajik DAR NI CO, NI CO T View
54 Persian INJA W View
77 Waziri DELE, DOLATA A View
1 Pashto DELTA, DALE A View
138 Shughni arēd U View
139 Sarikoli ɛwd V View
52 Ossetic am am Q View
124 Ossetic Iron am am Q View
125 Ossetic Digor ami ami Q View
105 Vedic Sanskrit ihá P View
162 Pāḷī idha P View
41 Khaskura YAHAN J, P View
51 Nepali YATA split from DKB J, O View
51 Nepali YAHA split from DKB J, P View
106 Assamese iyāt J View
102 Oriya eṭhi eʈhi AF eṭhi, eṭhare L View
10 Bengali EKHANE L View
111 Bihari emhar View
111 Bihari eta L View
144 Magahi इंहा ĩhɑ View
104 Marwari əʈʈhɛ əʈʈhɛ stative L View
35 Hindi YEHA J, P View
119 Urdu یہاں jəhɑ̃ J, P View
103 Sindhi (h)itē (h)itē (lit. ‘this place’), AF (h ... L View
43 Lahnda ITTHA L View
53 Punjabi ETTHE L View
33 Gujarati EHI L View
50 Marathi ithe, yethe 'itʰe, 'jetʰe L View
40 Kashmiri YOR split from DKB J View
40 Kashmiri YUTU split from DKB J, O View
65 Sinhalese METANA View
65 Sinhalese mehee mehe: View
34 Romani Greece KATE C, N View
100 Old Church Slavonic сьдє sɪ̆dɛ An alternative lexeme is 'тѹ ... B View
95 Serbo-Croatian ovdje ˈɔ̌ːvdjɛ Ekavian variant: [ˈɔ̌ːvdɛ]. An ... E View
15 Bulgarian тук(а) (ˈ)tuk(a) N View
92 Macedonian овде ˈovdɛ E View
92 Macedonian тука ˈtuka N View
60 Russian здесь zdʲɛsʲ B View
55 Polish tu(taj) 'tu(taj) Short and long form, both ... N View
16 Belarusian тут tut N View
73 Ukrainian тут tut N View
66 Slovak tu tu N View
18 Czech tady ˈtadɪ Alternative lexemes are 'zde' and ... N View
48 Sorbian Upper tu tu An alternative lexeme is 'jow ... N View
47 Sorbian Lower how how E View
97 Slovenian tu tu N View
108 Old Prussian schai AF schien B View
44 Latvian šeĩt B View
44 Latvian te related to /cognate/2689/? View
46 Lithuanian cia tʃʲɛ N View
109 Old Norse hér heːr AF hēr B View
36 Icelandic hér hjɛːr Removed -(NA). B View
23 Faroese her heːɹ B View
58 Norwegian Riksmal her hæːɾ B View
159 Stavangersk her heːʁ B View
157 Old Swedish här hæːr B View
69 Swedish här hæːr B View
71 Swedish Vilhelmina HAR, HENA HENAN B View
70 Swedish Uppland HAR B View
145 Elfdalian jär; jenę jæːr; ˈjɛ́ːnɛ̃ "jenę" = 'right here' B View
20 Danish her hɛˀɐ̯, heˀɐ̯ B View
158 Danish Fjolde heær heæɹ B View
160 Old Gutnish hier B View
161 Gutnish Lau hjär jæːr B View
99 Old English hēr B View
22 English here hɪə B View
26 Frisian hjir jɪr Removed HJIRRE. B View
21 Dutch hier hir B View
24 Flemish HIER B View
83 Afrikaans HIER B View
87 Sranan DIA, DIASO View
126 Old High German hier B View
27 German hier hi:ɐ̯ B View
86 Pennsylvania Dutch HAIIR B View
120 Luxembourgish hei B View
121 German Switzerland hie B View
107 Gothic hēr B View
112 Latin hīc hiːk Adv. related to hic, haec ... F View
17 Catalan ENSA split from DKB View
17 Catalan aqui ə'ki split from DKB, comp. ECCE ... B, F, J View
56 Portuguese aqui ɐˈki comp. ECCE ( B, F, J View
68 Spanish aqui a'ki comp. ECCE ( B, F, J View
68 Spanish acá a'ka View
61 Sardinian Cagliari INNOI K View
62 Sardinian Logudoro INOGHE K View
63 Sardinian Nuoro INOKKE K View
85 French Creole Dominica ISI comp. ECCE ( B, F, J View
76 Walloon CHAL View
25 French ici isi comp. ECCE ( B, F, J View
57 Provencal EICI, CAI comp. ECCE ( B, F, J View
42 Ladin TSCHO, ACCO / ACQUI, QUI comp. ECCE ( B, F, J View
146 Dolomite Ladino ca B View
123 Romansh qua View
122 Friulian ca, chi, culì, chenti View
39 Italian qui, qua kwi, kwa comp. ECCE ( B, F, J View
59 Romanian INCOACE split from DKB B, F, J View
59 Romanian aici aˈitʃʲ split from DKB, comp. ECCE ... B, F, J View
74 Vlach AWA View
127 Old Irish sund sun(d) N View
101 Middle Cornish omma 'ɔm:a G View
101 Middle Cornish dev AF def, interchangeably HERE and ... View
172 Middle Breton aman ˈãmãn Note that Middle Breton has ... G View
12 Breton amañ ˈɑ̃mɑ̃ G View
79 Welsh yma G View
38 Irish anseo ənˈʃo Replaced AG SO. N View
115 Scottish Gaelic an seo N View
5 [Legacy] Albanian T këtu C, N View
29 [Legacy] Greek K EDO H View
28 [Legacy] Greek D EDO H View
30 [Legacy] Greek Md EDO H View
64 [Legacy] Serbocroatian OVDE E View
113 [Legacy] Serbian ovde ǒːʋde AF ovdje E View
89 [Legacy] Bulgarian P TUK N View
49 [Legacy] Macedonian ovde ˈɔvdɛ split from DKB E View
49 [Legacy] Macedonian OVDEKA split from DKB E View
49 [Legacy] Macedonian tuka ˈtuka split from DKB. Removed TYKA. N View
49 [Legacy] Macedonian HAVAKA split from DKB E View
94 [Legacy] Russian P ZDES B View
93 [Legacy] Polish P TU N View
90 [Legacy] Byelorussian P TUT N View
98 [Legacy] Ukrainian P TUT N View
19 [Legacy] Czech E SEM split from DKB M View
19 [Legacy] Czech E TU, TADI split from DKB N View
96 [Legacy] Slovak P TU N View
91 [Legacy] Czech P ZDE B View
67 [Legacy] Slovenian TUKAJ N View
45 [Legacy] Lithuanian O CIA, SICIA N View
11 [Legacy] Brazilian aqui aˈki comp. ECCE ( B, F, J View
142 [Legacy] German Munich hier < Pr. Germ. *hiar ‘here’. B View
84 [Legacy] French Creole C ESIT, ISI comp. ECCE ( B, F, J View
14 [Legacy] Breton St amañ ˈa.mɑ G View
13 [Legacy] Breton Se AMEN G View
78 [Legacy] Welsh C YMA G View
37 [Legacy] Irish A ANNSO N View