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Cognate judgements are added on this page, but deleted by the lexeme view (use the button)


1. Man has two hands.
2. They cut off his hands.
3. People have fingers on each hand.

Specifically ‘hand’, i. e. the body part at the end of the arm below the wrist. Not to be confused with specialized terms like ‘palm’, ‘back side of the hand’, ‘right hand’, ‘left hand’ etc. Lack of the ‘hand’ : ‘arm’ opposition should be addressed the same way as with ‘foot’ : ‘leg’, see No.30. (Kassian et al. 2010)

Language list: all
Wordlist: all

ID Language Source Form Phonological Form Notes Cognate Class
114 Proto-Indo-European *mon-u- E View
114 Proto-Indo-European *g̑ʰes-r(o)-, *g̑ʰes-t(o)-, C View
114 Proto-Indo-European *mar- E View
80 Hittite keššar C View
133 Luvian īssaris C View
134 Lycian izre C View
81 Tocharian A tsar C View
82 Tocharian B ṣar C View
88 Albanian dorë A singularised neut. plural PAlb ... C View
143 Standard Albanian dorë C View
2 Albanian Sicily dorë A singularised neut. plural PAlb ... C View
4 Albanian Corinth dorë A singularised neut. plural PAlb ... C View
3 Albanian Gheg dorë A singularised neut. plural PAlb ... C View
6 Albanian Tosk dorë A singularised neut. plural PAlb ... C View
173 Mycenaean Greek ke-º kʰer- Attested as an element in ... C View
110 Ancient Greek χείρ kʰéːr χειρός C View
152 Tsakonian χερα C View
32 Greek χερί ˈçe̞ri C View
31 Greek Lesbos CHERI C View
129 Classical Armenian ձեռն jeṙn C View
8 Armenian Eastern ձեռք ʣɛrkʰ C View
7 Armenian Western ձեռք t͡sʰɛrkʰ C View
128 Avestan zastō C View
131 Old Persian dasta C View
136 Sogdian δst Manichean C, (D) View
174 Khotanese dastä dɐstə C View
75 Wakhi DUST C, (D) View
9 Baluchi DAST C, (D) View
118 Kurdish dest C, (D) View
137 Zazaki dest C, (D) View
72 Tajik dast dæst C, (D) View
54 Persian dast dæstʰ C, (D) View
77 Waziri LOS C, (D) View
1 Pashto LAS C, (D) View
138 Shughni x̆ikufta K View
138 Shughni dast, dust C, (D) View
139 Sarikoli δыst C, (D) View
52 Ossetic k'yx kʲuχ J View
124 Ossetic Iron k'uχ k'uχ J View
125 Ossetic Digor k'oχ k'oχ J View
154 Vasi-vari lust C, (D) View
153 Askunu dus, dost C, (D) View
153 Askunu čapāl View
105 Vedic Sanskrit hástas C View
162 Pāḷī hattha C View
41 Khaskura HATH C, (D) View
51 Nepali HAT C, (D) View
106 Assamese hāt AF āt C, (D) View
102 Oriya hatɔ hatɔ C, (D) View
10 Bengali hat ɦat̪ C, (D) View
111 Bihari hath hath C, (D) View
144 Magahi हाथ hɑt̪ʰ View
104 Marwari hāt AF hāth C, (D) View
35 Hindi hath ɦaːt̪ʰ C, (D) View
119 Urdu ہاتھ hɑt̪ʰ C, (D) View
103 Sindhi hathu C, (D) View
43 Lahnda HETH C, (D) View
53 Punjabi HETTH C, (D) View
33 Gujarati NATH View
50 Marathi hāt ɦat C, (D) View
40 Kashmiri ATHA C, (D) View
65 Sinhalese ATA C, (D) View
34 Romani Greece VAS H View
100 Old Church Slavonic рѫка rɔ̃kɑ G View
95 Serbo-Croatian ruka ˈrǔːka G View
15 Bulgarian ръка rəˈka G View
92 Macedonian рака ˈraka G View
60 Russian рука ru'ka G View
55 Polish ręka ˈrɛŋka G View
16 Belarusian рука ruˈka G View
73 Ukrainian рука ruˈka G View
66 Slovak ruka ˈruka G View
18 Czech ruka ˈruka G View
48 Sorbian Upper ruka ˈʀuka G View
47 Sorbian Lower ruka ˈruka G View
97 Slovenian roka ˈrɔ̂ːka G View
108 Old Prussian rānkan acc. G View
44 Latvian ròka G View
46 Lithuanian ranka ɾɐŋˈkɐ Also 'arm'. G View
109 Old Norse ho̜nd hɔnd Refers to entire limb B View
36 Icelandic hönd hœnd̥ B View
23 Faroese hond hɔnd̥ B View
58 Norwegian Riksmal hånd hɔnː B View
159 Stavangersk hånn hɔnː B View
157 Old Swedish hand hand B View
69 Swedish hand hand B View
71 Swedish Vilhelmina HAN B View
70 Swedish Uppland HAND B View
145 Elfdalian nevå ˈnɛ̀vɔ 1. Older nominative form: "nevi ... A View
145 Elfdalian and ɑnd "and" more common now due ... B View
20 Danish hånd hʌnˀ B View
158 Danish Fjolde hoand hoanʲ B View
160 Old Gutnish hand B View
161 Gutnish Lau hand hand B View
99 Old English hand B View
22 English hand hænd B View
26 Frisian hân hɔ:n B View
21 Dutch hand hɑnt B View
24 Flemish HAND B View
83 Afrikaans HAND B View
87 Sranan HAN, HANOE B View
126 Old High German hant B View
27 German Hand hant B View
86 Pennsylvania Dutch HONNDT B View
120 Luxembourgish Hand B View
121 German Switzerland hang B View
107 Gothic handus B View
130 Oscan manim acc. E View
132 Umbrian manf acc. pl. E View
112 Latin manus ˈmanus manūs. Also 'forepaw ... E View
17 Catalan ma E View
56 Portuguese mão mɐ̃u E View
68 Spanish mano 'mano E View
61 Sardinian Cagliari MANU E View
62 Sardinian Logudoro MANU E View
63 Sardinian Nuoro MANU E View
85 French Creole Dominica LAME E View
76 Walloon MIN E View
25 French main mɛ̃ E View
57 Provencal man ma Changed from MAIN. E View
42 Ladin MAUN E View
146 Dolomite Ladino man E View
123 Romansh maun E View
122 Friulian man E View
39 Italian mano 'mano E View
59 Romanian mână ˈmɨ.nə Replaced MINA. E View
74 Vlach MYNE E View
140 Gaulish lama Attested in toponyms and personal ... I View
127 Old Irish lám la:ṽ < IE *p/H-mā ‘flat Hand ... I View
149 Old Cornish lau / lof I View
101 Middle Cornish dorn dɔrn F View
101 Middle Cornish leuv lœ:v I View
148 Old Breton durn F View
148 Old Breton lom- / lou- I View
172 Middle Breton dorn, dorn, dourn, dournn ˈdorn, ˈdurn F View
12 Breton dorn ˈdɔrn F View
150 Old Welsh lau I View
79 Welsh llaw I View
38 Irish lámh l̪ˠɑːvˠ, l̪ˠæːw Munster & Connacht, Ulster. I View
115 Scottish Gaelic làmh ɫ̪ãːv I View
147 Manx laue I View
5 [Legacy] Albanian T dorë ˈdɔɾ(ə) A singularised neut. plural PAlb ... C View
29 [Legacy] Greek K CHEIR C View
28 [Legacy] Greek D CHERI C View
30 [Legacy] Greek Md CHERI C View
64 [Legacy] Serbocroatian RUKA G View
113 [Legacy] Serbian ruka rǔːka in Kordić also as 'arm' G View
89 [Legacy] Bulgarian P RUKA G View
49 [Legacy] Macedonian RAKA G View
94 [Legacy] Russian P RUKA G View
93 [Legacy] Polish P REKA G View
90 [Legacy] Byelorussian P RUKA G View
98 [Legacy] Ukrainian P RUKA G View
19 [Legacy] Czech E RUKA G View
96 [Legacy] Slovak P RUKA G View
91 [Legacy] Czech P RUKA G View
67 [Legacy] Slovenian RAKA G View
45 [Legacy] Lithuanian O RANKA G View
11 [Legacy] Brazilian MAO E View
142 [Legacy] German Munich Hand < Pr. Germ. *handu- ‘hand’. B View
84 [Legacy] French Creole C LAME E View
14 [Legacy] Breton St do(u)rn dɔʁn F View
13 [Legacy] Breton Se DORN F View
78 [Legacy] Welsh C LLAW I View
37 [Legacy] Irish A LAMH I View