IELex

cold

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Description

1. The water in this bowl is cold, the water in that bowl is hot.
2. The sea/lake is too cold to swim/wash in.
3. I do not know if this stone is still cold or whether it already got hot from the sun.

The regular antonym of ‘hot’. Should be separated from more specific temperature characteristics (‘ice-cold’, ‘cool’, etc.). 'Cold water' seems more easily elicited than 'cold weather' although the two may require different basic stems; if so, both should be noted. (Kassian et al. 2010)

Language list: all
Wordlist: all

ID Language Source Form Phonological Form Notes Cognate Class
114 Proto-Indo-European *kalda- Proto-Germanic form. The root has ... B View
80 Hittite ekunanz F View
81 Tocharian A kuraś H View
82 Tocharian B krośce H View
88 Albanian FTOFT, FTOFET C View
143 Standard Albanian i ftohtë Late derivative of ftoh ~ ftof ... C View
2 Albanian Sicily TITIM View
4 Albanian Corinth FTOXETE C View
3 Albanian Gheg FTOFT C View
6 Albanian Tosk ftohët Replaced noun I, E FTOHTE ... C View
110 Ancient Greek κρυερός kryerós EXCLUDE. (H) View
110 Ancient Greek ψῡχρός psyːkʰrós G.sg. ψῡχροῦ; ψυ ... K View
152 Tsakonian ψουχρε K View
32 Greek κρύος ˈkriˌo̞s Reanalysed from Ancient Greek substantive ... H View
32 Greek ψυχρός psi'xros EXCLUDE. (K) View
31 Greek Lesbos KRUO H View
129 Classical Armenian ցուրտ tsʰuɾt Also 'cold water'. The word ... A View
8 Armenian Eastern սառը sɑṙə Connected with OIc. hjarn n ... View
8 Armenian Eastern ցուրտ tsʰuɾt maybe from IE *ƙēṷero- 'north ... A View
7 Armenian Western BAKH also specifically 'frost; ice' View
7 Armenian Western ցուրտ tsʰuɾd View
128 Avestan sarətō A View
128 Avestan aotō N View
136 Sogdian srt Sogdian A View
174 Khotanese sāḍa- A View
75 Wakhi SUR, SOZ A View
9 Baluchi SARTH split from DKB A View
9 Baluchi GWAHAR split from DKB O View
118 Kurdish sar A View
137 Zazaki serd A View
72 Tajik SARD split from DKB A View
72 Tajik XUNUK split from DKB P View
54 Persian SARD A View
77 Waziri SOR A View
1 Pashto SOR A View
138 Shughni sard A View
139 Sarikoli šitu Q View
139 Sarikoli Q View
52 Ossetic uazal wazal A View
124 Ossetic Iron wažal wažal A View
125 Ossetic Digor wazal wazal A View
141 Kata-viri yuz R View
154 Vasi-vari yüzu R View
154 Vasi-vari šülyu A View
153 Askunu açage Y View
105 Vedic Sanskrit śītás A View
162 Pāḷī sīta A View
41 Khaskura JARO split from DKB T View
41 Khaskura CHISO split from DKB W View
51 Nepali THANDA D View
106 Assamese xit xit A View
102 Oriya thɔṇḍa thɔɳɖa also noun D View
10 Bengali THANDA D View
111 Bihari ʈhəndha ʈhəndha D View
144 Magahi कनकन kənkən Used in different contexts to ... U View
144 Magahi ठंढा tʰəndʰɑ Used in different contexts to ... D View
104 Marwari silo silo A View
35 Hindi THENDA D View
119 Urdu سرد، ٹھنڈا səɾd̪, ʈʰə̃ɖɑ D View
103 Sindhi thadhe-kāra ‘cool temperature’, suffix = nominalizer D View
43 Lahnda THEND D View
53 Punjabi THEND D View
33 Gujarati THENDI D View
50 Marathi thandī 'tʰaɳɖi: D View
40 Kashmiri SHITAL split from DKB A View
40 Kashmiri TURU split from DKB V View
65 Sinhalese SI TALA (A) View
34 Romani Greece SUDRO S View
100 Old Church Slavonic стѹдєнъ studɛnʊ̆ Alternative lexemes are 'хладьнъ' and ... M View
95 Serbo-Croatian hladan ˈhlǎːdan An alternative lexeme is 'studen ... G View
15 Bulgarian студен stuˈdɛn 'хладен' means 'cool'. M View
92 Macedonian студен ˈstudɛn An alternative lexeme is 'ладен ... M View
60 Russian холодный xɔ'ɫɔdnɨj G View
55 Polish zimny ˈʑimnɘ̟ L View
16 Belarusian халодны xaˈɫɔdnɨ G View
73 Ukrainian холодний xɔˈɫɔdnɪj An alternative lexeme is 'зимний ... G View
66 Slovak studený ˈstuɟɛniː An alternative lexeme is 'chladný ... M View
18 Czech studený ˈstudɛniː An alternative lexeme is 'chladný ... M View
48 Sorbian Upper zymny ˈzɘ̟mnɘ̟ L View
47 Sorbian Lower zymny ˈzɘ̟mnɘ̟ L View
97 Slovenian hladen ˈhlǎːdɛn G View
108 Old Prussian salta A View
44 Latvian aũksts I View
44 Latvian sal̂ts A View
46 Lithuanian SALTAS A View
109 Old Norse kaldr kaldr B View
36 Icelandic kaldur ˈkʰald̥ʏr Replaced KALDR. B View
23 Faroese kaldur ˈkʰald̥ʊɹ B View
58 Norwegian Riksmal kald kalː B View
159 Stavangersk kalle ˈkalːə B View
157 Old Swedish kalder ˈkalder B View
69 Swedish kall kalː B View
71 Swedish Vilhelmina KAL B View
70 Swedish Uppland KALL B View
145 Elfdalian kold kold B View
20 Danish kold g̥ʰʌlˀ B View
158 Danish Fjolde koold koːlʲ B View
160 Old Gutnish caldr nominative not attested B View
161 Gutnish Lau kaldar ˈkaldar B View
99 Old English ceald B View
22 English cold kəʊld B View
26 Frisian kâld kɔ:t B View
21 Dutch koud kɑut B View
24 Flemish KOUD B View
83 Afrikaans KOUD B View
87 Sranan KOUROE B View
126 Old High German calt B View
27 German kalt kalt B View
86 Pennsylvania Dutch KELT B View
120 Luxembourgish kal B View
121 German Switzerland chaut B View
107 Gothic kalds B View
112 Latin frīgidus ˈfriːgidus G.sg.m. frīgidī (adjective) E View
17 Catalan fred fɾɛt, fret Eastern, western. Changed from FRET. E View
56 Portuguese frio ˈfɾiu E View
68 Spanish frío 'fɾio E View
61 Sardinian Cagliari FRIRU E View
62 Sardinian Logudoro FRITTU E View
63 Sardinian Nuoro FRITTU E View
85 French Creole Dominica FWET E View
76 Walloon FREUD E View
25 French froid fʀwɑ E View
57 Provencal FRE, EJO E View
42 Ladin FRAID E View
146 Dolomite Ladino fre(i)t E View
146 Dolomite Ladino glacé X View
123 Romansh freid E View
123 Romansh schelau, dschlà < Lat gelidum. X View
122 Friulian glaçât < Lat gelidum. X View
122 Friulian frêt E View
39 Italian freddo 'freddo E View
59 Romanian rece ˈreʧe Lat. RECENS 'fresh, recent, young ... View
74 Vlach ARKWARE View
140 Gaulish ougro- Reconstructed form, based on attestations ... I View
127 Old Irish úar u:ər I View
149 Old Cornish oir I View
101 Middle Cornish yeyn jɛɪn F View
172 Middle Breton yen ˈjeːn F View
12 Breton yen ˈjẽːn F View
79 Welsh oer I View
38 Irish fuar fˠuəɾˠ Replaced P- with f-. I View
115 Scottish Gaelic fuar fuər I View
147 Manx feayr I View
5 [Legacy] Albanian T ftohët Replaced noun I, E FTOHTE ... C View
29 [Legacy] Greek K PSUCHROS K View
28 [Legacy] Greek D KRUO H View
30 [Legacy] Greek Md KRUOS H View
64 [Legacy] Serbocroatian HLADNO G View
113 [Legacy] Serbian studen M View
113 [Legacy] Serbian hladno xlǎːdno also ‘dry’, judged most neutral ... G View
89 [Legacy] Bulgarian P STUDEN M View
49 [Legacy] Macedonian STRUD split from DKB M View
49 [Legacy] Macedonian LADEN split from DKB G View
94 [Legacy] Russian P CHOLODNYJ G View
93 [Legacy] Polish P CHLODNY G View
90 [Legacy] Byelorussian P CHALODNY G View
98 [Legacy] Ukrainian P CHOLODNYJ G View
19 [Legacy] Czech E ZIMA L View
96 [Legacy] Slovak P CHLADNY G View
91 [Legacy] Czech P CHLADNY G View
67 [Legacy] Slovenian MRAZ (MRZLO UREME) comp. Slavic MRAZ 'frost' < IE ... View
45 [Legacy] Lithuanian O SALTAS A View
11 [Legacy] Brazilian FRIO E View
142 [Legacy] German Munich kalt < Pr. Germ. kalda- ‘cold’. B View
84 [Legacy] French Creole C FWET E View
14 [Legacy] Breton St yen jẽ:n F View
13 [Legacy] Breton Se IEIN F View
78 [Legacy] Welsh C OER I View
37 [Legacy] Irish A FUAR I View