IELex

Middle Breton: ˈkals

« ˈguːr (man) ˈkiːk (meat) »

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Lexeme data

Language:Middle Breton
Meaning:many
Source form:cals
Phonological form:ˈkals
Gloss:many, much
Notes:Can be used with count nouns and with abstract nouns, e.g. cals merit 'much merit', cals tyez 'many houses'. Sometimes preceded by a 'of', e.g. cals a doan 'much sorrow', cals a clevedou 'many deseases' (Hemon 1975, 148).
Cognate codes:Ai

Sources of lexical data

View source
Source: GIB = Hemon, Roparz. 1979–1998. Geriadur istorel ar brezhoneg / Dictionnaire historique du breton. 2. éd. Plomelin: Preder.
Pages: 1350
Reliability: High
View source
Source: Hemon, Roparz. 1975: A historical morphology and syntax of Breton. Dublin, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies (Medieval and Modern Breton Series III).
Pages: 148-49
Reliability: High
View source
Source: Dictionnaire historique Meurgorf. http://meurgorf.brezhoneg.bzh/
Reliability: High

Cognate coding

Cognate Class Ai
View source
Source: Hemon, Roparz. 1975: A historical morphology and syntax of Breton. Dublin, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies (Medieval and Modern Breton Series III).
Pages: 149
Reliability: High
Comment: The origin of cals is obscure. It may be the same word as Modern Breton kalz 'heap': ur c'hals teil 'a dunghill'. In fact, Modern Breton ur c'halz is sometimes used instead of kalz itself: eur c'halz ac'hanomp 'many of us'.