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Middle Breton (all)

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ID Meaning Source Form Phonological Form Gloss Notes nCog
82 I me ˈmeː I View 1
1 all oll, holl ˈolː all, completely View 1
2 and ha, hag a, aɡ and; with Ha before consonant, hag before ... View 1
3 animal loezn ˈloeðn beast, animal Seems to be used in ... View 1
3 animal aneual ãˈneːval animal, beast Seems to be used in ... View 1
4 ashes ludu ˈlyːdy ashes View 1
5 at e, en(n), i, in e, en, i, in at, in, while View 1
6 back queyn, quein ˈkejn back View 1
7 bad drouc ˈdruːk bad, poor, mean Seems to be used in ... View 1
7 bad goal, goall ˈgoalː bad, serious Seems to be used in ... View 1
8 bark rusquenn ˈrysken bark Derivation with singulative-suffix. The corresponding ... View 1
9 because palamour, palomour, polamour paˈlaːmur because of, for Earliest attestation the Catholicon (1499). View 1
9 because rac raːk, rak because, for Ex.: hon trætit en mat, ... View 1
10 belly coff ˈkoːf belly Earliest attestation in Breton: Catholicon ... View 1
11 big bras ˈbraːs big, important, of high rank; greatly, much; strange View 1
11 big meur ˈmøːr big, great, greatly; difficult View 1
12 bird lapoucc, labouçc ˈlaːpus chick, bird Middle Breton lapoucc is only ... View 1
12 bird ezn, ezen, ezenn ˈeðn bird, chick Middle Breton ezn is attested ... View 1
13 bite creguiff ˈkreːgiṽ to seize, lat. manucapere, to bite View 1
13 bite dantaff ˈdantaṽ to bite View 1
14 black du ˈdyː black View 1
15 blood goat ˈgoat blood, Latin sanguis View 1
16 blow huezaff ˈxweːθaṽ to blow, to swell View 1
17 bone askorn ˈaskorn bone According to Schrijver (1995, 53-55) ... View 1
18 breast bronn ˈbronː breast, tit denotes the male and female ... View 1
19 breathe tennaff e alazn ˈtenːaṽ e ˈaːlaðn to breathe light-verb construction, literally 'to draw ... View 1
19 breathe alaznaff aˈlaðnaṽ to pant Denominative Verb, based on alazn ... View 1
20 burn lesquiff ˈleskiṽ to burn View 1
21 child buguel ˈbyːɡel child, shepherd View 1
22 cloud couffablenn, couffabrenn, coüabren kuˈvablǝn, kuˈvabrǝn cloud, heaven Singulative. Seems to be the ... View 1
23 cold yen ˈjeːn cold View 1
24 come donet, donnet, dont ˈdoːnǝt, ˈdont to come, to become View 1
25 count niveraff niˈveːraṽ to count, to calculate, to number, to enumerate Seems to be used in ... View 2
25 count contaff, countaff ˈkôntaṽ, ˈkuntaṽ to count, Latin computare; to tell, to relate The Catholicon has also niveraff ... View 1
26 cut trouchaff ˈtruːɣaṽ to cut Seems to be the Swadesh ... View 1
27 day dez, deyz, deiz ˈdeːð, ˈdejð day View 1
28 die meruell, meruel ˈmervǝl to die View 1
29 dig cleusy ˈkløːðiṽ, ˈkløːsi Only attested in a lexicographical ... View 1
29 dig caffaff, cauaf ˈkaːuaṽ Only attested in the Catholicon ... View 1
30 dirty lous ˈluːs dirty, ugly, stinking View 1
31 dog qui, quy ˈkiː dog View 1
32 drink euaff, effaff ˈeːvaṽ to drink View 1
33 dry sech ˈseːx Catholicon (1499): sec, Latin sicus. View 2
34 dull kizet ? ˈkiːzet EXCLUDED. PPP of verb kizañ ... View 0
34 dull dall? ˈdalː blind, dull Listed as meaning in GIB ... View 1
34 dull togn, tougn? ˈtoːɲ, ˈtuːɲ flat, dull Used to denote a flat ... View 1
34 dull dilemm? ˈdilem unsharp, dull Compound di- 'un-' and lemm ... View 0
34 dull taltous ? ˈtaltus dull, flat Also taltouzet, PPP of the ... View 0
35 dust poultr ˈpultr dust, powder View 2
36 ear scouarn, scoüarn ˈskuarn ear, gills (of fish), handle, View 1
37 earth douar ˈduːar earth, soil, ground, territory View 1
38 eat dibriff, dybryf ˈdibriṽ to eat View 1
39 egg uy, üi, vy, vuy ˈviː, ˈɥiː egg View 1
40 eye lagat, laguat ˈlaːgat eye, eye-shaped object View 1
41 fall coezaff, coüezaff, couezaff ˈkueðaṽ to fall, to happen, to occur, to expire View 1
42 far pell ˈpelː far (distance), long (time) View 1
43 fat lart, lard ˈlart fat (noun) View 1
44 father tat ˈtaːt father View 1
45 fear caffout oun, aoun ˌkaːvut ˈuːn, ˈaun fear Light-verb construction: caffout aoun 'to ... View 1
46 feather pluuenn, pluffenn, pluenn, plufuenn ˈplyːven, ˈplyːen feather Singulative of plu, pluff View 2
47 few nebeut ˈneːbøt little, few, small, a small amount, a small number Contains the negator nep. Can ... View 1
47 few nep meur, nemeur nep ˈmøːr, neˈmøːr but a small amount, but a small number, but little Generally used with the verb ... View 1
48 fight cannaff, canaff ˈkanːaṽ to fight, to hit View 1
49 fingernail iuin ˈiːvin fingernail, claw View 1
50 fire tan ˈtaːn, ˈtɑ̃ːn fire View 1
51 fish pesq, pescq ˈpesk fish View 2
52 five pemp ˈpemp five View 1
53 float flotaff ˈfloːtaṽ to float In Middle Breton only attested ... View 2
55 flower bleuzuenn ˈbløðven flower Singulative of blezu, bleuzf, bleuzff View 1
56 fly nigal, nigàl ˈniːʒal to fly, to float (in the wind) View 1
57 fog brum ˈbrỹːm mist, French brume, Latin bruma First attested in the Catholicon ... View 2
58 foot troat ˈtroat foot View 1
59 four peuar, peuoar ˈpɛːvar four (mask.) peder (fem.) View 1
61 fruit froez, froiz ˈfroeθ fruit; result, product; offspring The Middle Breton form is ... View 2
62 full leun ˈløn full; complete, perfect View 1
63 give reiff, reyff, reyf reˈiṽ to give View 1
64 good mat ˈmaːt good View 1
65 grass gueautenn ˈgeoten grass Singulative. The corresponding collective is ... View 1
66 green glas ˈglaːs green, blue, fresh; bitter, hard View 1
66 green guezr, guerz, gwezr ˈgueðr green According to a common opinion, ... View 2
67 guts couraillou kuˈralju entrailles, fressure, Lat. uiscera Often used in the plural, ... View 1
68 hair bleau, bleu ˈbleo hair, coat of animal Collective noun. The corresponding singulative ... View 1
69 hand dorn, dorn, dourn, dournn ˈdorn, ˈdurn hand; fist, handle View 1
70 he eff, ef ˈeṽ he Further graphic variants: enff, enf, ... View 1
71 head penn, pen ˈpenː head; chief, commander; end, top, aim; person, nobody View 1
72 hear cleuet, clevet ˈkleːvet to hear; to feel, to smell Further graphic variants: cleauuet, cleauet, ... View 1
73 heart calon, caloun ˈkaːlon, ˈkaːlun heart View 1
74 heavy ponnher ˈponːer heavy; grave, serious Further graphic variants: ponher, pounher, ... View 2
75 here aman ˈãmãn here Note that Middle Breton has ... View 1
76 hit squeiff, squeyff ˈskejṽ to hit, to beat, to strike; to direct oneself, to go away, to leave View 1
77 hold delcher, delchel, delchell, dercher, derchell ˈdelher, ˈdelhel, ˈderher, ˈderhel to hold; to keep, to support, to maintain View 1
78 horn corn, cornn ˈkorn horn (of animal); musical instrument View 1
79 how penaus, pennaus, penos, penaux, penaulx peˈnaus, ˈpenoːs how Consists of the interrogative pe ... View 1
80 hunt emolch, hemolch ˈhemolx to hunt Unclear if this is the ... View 1
80 hunt chasseal ʃaˈseal to hunt, to expel Graphic variant: chacceal. Unclear if ... View 2
81 husband ozech, osech, ozec'h ˈoːzex husband, married man, head of the houshold; man? Seems to be used in ... View 1
81 husband priet, pryet ˈpriːet husband; wife, spouse View 1
83 ice scorn ˈskorn ice, frozen water View 1
84 if ma, mar ma, mar if See Hemon (1975, 295ff.) for ... View 1
85 in e, en e, en in E before a word beginning ... View 1
86 kill lazaff, lazaf ˈlaːðaṽ to kill, to extinguish (e.g. fire) View 1
87 knee glin ˈgliːn knee Frequently compounded with daou 'two', ... View 1
88 know gouzout, gouzuout ˈguːðut to know, to be acquainted with, to be able Compound of Old Breton guid-, ... View 1
89 lake lenn ˈlenː lake View 1
90 laugh huerzin, huerzyn ˈxwerθin to laugh View 1
91 leaf delyenn, delyen ˈdeːljen leaf (of tree etc.) Singulative. The corresponding collective is ... View 1
92 left cleiz, cleïz ˈklejs left View 1
93 leg garr, guarr ˈgarː leg View 1
94 lie bezaff gouruezet, gourvezet ˈbeðaṽ gurˈveːðet to lie, to be stretched out, to rest, to lay down Light-verb construction (bezaff 'to be' ... View 1
95 live beuaff, befaff ˈbeːvaṽ to live; to nourish, to make live View 1
96 liver auu, auv, affu, eü ˈaːvy liver View 1
97 long hir, hirr, hyr, hyrr ˈhiːr long (distance and time) View 1
98 louse louenn, laoüen ˈlowen, ˈlawen louse Singulative. The corresponding collective is ... View 1
99 man gour ˈguːr man, servant, person According to the Catholicon (1499) ... View 1
99 man den, din ˈdeːn human being, man, person Not the Swadesh term if ... View 1
100 many cals ˈkals many, much Can be used with count ... View 1
101 meat quic, quicq, quyc ˈkiːk meat, flesh View 1
102 moon loar, loàr, loer ˈloar, ˈloer moon View 2
103 mother mam, mamm ˈmamː mother View 1
104 mountain menez ˈmeːneð mount, mountains View 1
105 mouth bec ˈbeːk beak (of bird), mouth; point, end, summit View 1
105 mouth guenou, guenouff ˈgeːnu, ˈgeːnow mouth View 1
106 name hanu, hano, hanou, hanoff ˈaːnv, aːno name View 1
107 narrow striz, stryz ˈstriːθ narrow; strict, severe, rigorous View 1
107 narrow hencq, enc, encq ˈeŋk narrow; cramped, tiny; neat, tidy, strict Ex. pan-æ enc e-n hent ... View 1
108 near tost ˈtost near; firmely, close View 1
109 neck gouzouc ˈguːðuk neck View 1
110 new neuez, nevez ˈneːveð new; recent, novel View 1
111 night nos ˈnoːs night View 1
112 nose fri, fry ˈfriː nose View 1
113 not na, nac na, nac not EXCLUDED. Verbal negator used in ... View 1
113 not ne (... quet) ne ... ket not Verbal negator used in main ... View 1
114 old coz ˈkoːθ old, ancient View 1
115 one un, vn, unan, vnan yn, ˈynan one Un is used adjectivally, unan ... View 1
116 other all, arall ˈalː, aˈralː other arall is the reduplicated form ... View 1
117 person den ˈdeːn human being, man, person, nobody View 1
118 play hoari, hoary, c'hoary, hoariff ˈxoaːri, ˈxwaːri to play, to play music View 1
119 pull tennaff ˈtenːaṽ to pull, to pull out; to reach out for, to direct oneself towards, to withdraw from View 1
120 push poulsaff ˈpulsaṽ to push, to incite In Early Modern Breton also ... View 2
120 push boutaff, bountaff ˈbutaṽ, ˈbuntaṽ to push, to hit View 1
121 rain glau, glao ˈglav, ˈglao rain View 1
122 red ruz ˈryːð red The Catholicon (1499) translates 'rouge, ... View 1
123 right rez ˈreːθ, ˈrejθ right, exact, correct; just, fair; regular View 1
124 rightside deho, dechou, dehaou, dehou ˈdeːhow, ˈdehaw rightside View 1
125 river auon, auoun, auonn ˈaːvon river View 1
126 road hent, ent ˈhent, ˈent road, path, way; way (of doing), method, manner View 1
127 root gruizyenn, gruyzyenn, gruyzienn, grizyenn, grizyen ˈgwriðjen root View 1
128 rope cordenn, corden ˈkorden rope View 2
129 rotten brein, breyn ˈbrejn rotten View 1
130 round crenn ˈkrenː round; complete, absolute; clear, abrupt, sudden View 1
130 round ront ˈront round, circular Rarer then crenn, only one ... View 1
131 rub frotaff, frottaf ˈfroːtaṽ to rub; to beat, to thrash View 1
131 rub tarauat taˈraːvat to rub Hapax in Middle Breton; the ... View 1
132 salt holen, olen, olèn, hòalen ˈhoːlen, ˈoːlen salt View 1
133 sand treez, træz, traez ˈtrɛːθ sand; shore, beach View 1
134 say lauarez laˈvaːreð to say, to speak View 1
135 scratch criffyat, craffat ˈkrifjat, ˈkrafat to scratch Seems to mean to scratch ... View 0
135 scratch scrapat, scrabat ˈskaːbat to scratch, to scrape Definition given by the Catholicon ... View 2
136 sea mor ˈmoːr sea View 1
137 see guelet, gouelet ˈgueːlet to see View 1
138 seed hat, had ˈhaːt, ˈaːt seed, grain View 1
139 sew gruyat, gruiat, gryat ˈgwriat to sew; to fix, to attach, to nail; to pierce, to torture, to make suffer View 0
140 sharp lem ˈlemː sharp; quick; certainly, frankly View 1
141 short berr, ber ˈberː, ˈbeːr short View 0
142 sing canaff ˈkaːnaṽ to sing View 0
143 sit asezaff ? / bezaff asezet aˈseːðaṽ / ˈbeːðaṽ aˈseːðet to sit, to sit down / to be seated The verb asazaff, attested in ... View 0
144 skin crochenn, crochen, crohen ˈkrohen skin View 0
145 sky eff? ˈeːṽ heaven, sky (?) Further graphic variants: euff, aeff, ... View 0
146 sleep cousquet ˈkusket to sleep View 0
147 small bihan, bichan, bigan, byhan, bian ˈbijan small; humble View 0
148 smell santaff, santout ˈsantaṽ, ˈsantut to feel by the sense of smell, to feel View 0
149 smoke moguet ˈmoːget smoke View 0
150 smooth lencr ˈlenkr smooth, slippery According to the Catholicon (1499) ... View 0
150 smooth levn* ˈlevn smooth, polished, even, plain (e.g. of coat of animal) Not attested in Middle Breton. ... View 0
151 snake azr, aezr ˈaðr snake View 0
152 snow erch ˈerx snow View 0
153 some bennac, pennac ? beˈnak, peˈnak any, some or other, some, a certain Bennac is used in a ... View 0
155 split feutiff ˈføːtiṽ to split View 0
156 squeeze stardaff ? ˈstardaṽ to squeeze, to press, to embrace View 0
156 squeeze goascaff, goaschaff, goschaff ˈgoaskaṽ to squeeze, to summarize View 0
158 stand bezaff / lesell / seuell en e sav ˈbeːðaṽ / ˈleːselː / ˈseːvelː en e saːv to be standing, to stand, to be upright As in French, there is ... View 0
159 star sterenn, steren ˈsteːren star Singulative. The corresponding collective is ... View 0
160 stick baz, bazz ˈbaθ stick View 0
161 stone maen, men, mean, mæn ˈmɛn stone View 0
162 straight effn ˈeṽn straight, rectilinear Only attested in the Catholicon ... View 0
163 suck sunaff, sùnaff ˈsuːnaṽ to suck View 0
164 sun heaul, eaul, heol ˈheol, ˈheaul, ˈeol, ˈeaul sun View 0
165 swell huezaff ˈxweːðaṽ to swell, to blow The Catholicon (1499) has examples ... View 0
165 swell coezffuiff, coezffuaff, couezfuiff ˈkweðviṽ, ˈkweðvaṽ, to swell The Catholicon (1499) glosses: French ... View 0
166 swim neuff, neuf, neu ˈnøːṽ to swim View 0
167 tail lost ˈlost tail; sleeve, back part View 0
168 that hennez m.sg., honnez, hounnez f.sg., an re-se pl. ˈhenːes, ˈhonːes, arˈreːze that hennez m.sg., honnez f.sg., an ... View 0
168 that an ... se se that The definite article and the ... View 0
169 there vase ˈvaːse there (place within sight) Note that Middle Breton has ... View 0
170 they y, i i they View 0
171 thick teu, téo ˈtew, ˈteo thick, fat, massive; dense, cramped; well View 0
172 thin tanau ˈtaːnau thin, slim, skinny; light, clear View 0
172 thin moan ˈmoan thin, slim, slight Can be used in the ... View 0
173 think pridiri, prydyry priˈdiːri to think, to think about, to ponder, to examine, to plan Well attested and frequent. View 0
173 think soingaff, songaff, songal, soingal ˈsonʒaṽ, ˈsonʒal to think, to think about Well attested and frequent. View 0
174 this an ... man an ... mã this The definite article and the ... View 0
174 this heman m.sg., homman, houman f.sg., an re-man pl. ˈheman, ˈhoman, ˈhuman, an ˈreːman this heman m.sg., homman, houman f.sg., ... View 0
175 thou te ˈte you (2. sg.) View 1
176 three tri, try m. ˈtriː three The corresponding feminine is teir, ... View 0
177 throw teurell, teureul, teuleur ˈtøːrel, ˈtøːlør, ˈtøːlør to throw, to produce View 0
178 tie eren, erenn, aeren, ereiff ˈeːren, ˈɛːren, ˈeːrejṽ to tie View 0
178 tie stagaff ˈstaːgaṽ to tie, to tie up, to fasten View 0
178 tie liamaff* ljˈaːmaṽ to tie Used in the same context ... View 0
179 tongue teaut, teut tongue View 0
180 tooth dant ˈdant tooth View 1
181 tree guezenn, guzen ˈgueːðen tree Singulative. The corresponding collective is ... View 0
182 turn treiff ˈtreiṽ to turn, to come to mind, to change (opinion, confession), to start View 0
183 two dou, daou m. ˈdou, ˈdau two The corresponding feminine form is ... View 0
184 vomit huedaff, huediff ˈxweːdaṽ, ˈxweːdiṽ to vomit Hapax in the Catholicon (1499), ... View 0
185 walk bale ˈbaːle to walk View 0
185 walk querzet ˈkerθet to walk, to go, to go away View 0
186 warm toem, tomm, tom ˈtoem, ˈtomː warm, hot View 0
187 wash guelchiff, guelhy, guelchy, goalchi ˈguelhiṽ, ˈgualhi to wash View 0
188 water dour ˈduːr water View 0
189 we ny, ni ni we View 0
190 wet glueb, gleb, gloeb ˈgwleːb, ˈgloeːb wet, damp, moist View 0
191 what petra peˈtra what, why From pez tra 'what thing'? ... View 1
191 what pe ˈpe what, which Pronoun and adjective, interrogative and ... View 1
192 when peur, pe eur ˈpøːr, pe ˈøːr when Composed of pe 'what' and ... View 0
193 where pelech, pellech, pe lech peˈlex where Consists of pe 'what, which' ... View 0
194 white guenn ˈguenː white; happy, beautiful, dear, sweet View 0
195 who piu, pyu, piou ˈpiuː, ˈpiw who View 1
196 wide ledan ˈleːdan wide View 1
197 wife priet, pryed ˈpriːet wife; husband, spouse View 1
197 wife gurec, greuc, grec, grouec, groec ˈgureːk, ˈgurek, wife, married woman, woman The original meaning seems to ... View 1
198 wind avel, auel ˈaːvel wind View 1
199 wing asquell ˈaskel wing View 2
200 wipe torchaff ˈtorʃaṽ to wipe View 1
201 with gant, gand, gat ˈgant with; of, through, by View 1
202 woman moues, maoües ˈmoues, ˈmaues woman Has fewer attestations than gurec. View 1
202 woman gurec, greuc, grec, grouec, groec ˈgurec wife, married woman, woman The original meaning seems to ... View 1
203 woods coat, quoat ˈkoat woods, forest; wood (material) View 1
204 worm preff, pref, preu ˈpreːṽ worm View 1
206 year bloaz, bloz, bloez, bloeaz ˈbloað year View 1
207 yellow melen ˈmeːlen yellow View 1
205 you huy, hui, hu ˈhui, ˈhu you (2 pl.) View 1

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