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Description Classical Latin (Literary Standard of the Roman Late Republic/Early Imperial Period, ca. 50 BC – 100 AD) Verb forms listed in the present infinitive otherwise specified. Nouns listed in nominative singular unless otherwise specified. NB: In this list consonantal /j/ and /w/ are notated with <i> and <u> in the source forms, conforming to the orthographic practice of P.G.W. Glare (ed.) Oxford Latin Dictionary (Oxford, 1982). Some lexical resources (notably Lewis & Short's Latin-English Dictionary) will notate these with <j> and <v> respectively.

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ID Meaning Source Form Phonological Form Gloss Notes nCog
82 I ego ˈego I Old Latin egō (i.e. /egoː/). ... View 1
1 all omnis ˈomnis the whole, all omnis. 'etymologically dubious' (Buck ... View 1
1 all tōtus ˈtoːtus the whole of, all EXCLUDED. View 1
2 and et et and, too View 1
3 animal bestia ˈbestia beast, animal; beast of prey EXCLUDED. View 1
3 animal animal ˈanimal a living creature, animal gen. animālis View 1
4 ashes cinis ˈkinis residue from a fire, ashes gen. cineris View 1
5 at ad ad at, near, beside Cf. OLD s.v. ad (C) ... View 1
6 back tergum ˈtergum hinder part of the human body, back gen. tergī. (Used of men ... View 1
6 back dorsum ˈdorsum hinder part of the body, back EXCLUDED. View 1
7 bad malus ˈmalus bad gen. malī View 1
8 bark cortex ˈkorteks outer covering of a tree, bark gen. corticis View 1
9 because quod kʷod View 1
10 belly uenter ˈwenter the lower part of the human torso, belly, abdomen gen. uentris View 1
11 big grandis ˈɡrandis large, great EXCLUDED. View 1
11 big magnus ˈmaŋnus great in size or extent, big magnī; magnus, magna, magnum View 1
12 bird auis ˈawis bird auis View 1
13 bite mordēre morˈdeːre to wound with the teeth (beak), bite mordĕõ, mordēre, momordī, morsum View 1
14 black niger ˈniɡer dark in colour, black Used in contrast to 'white' ... View 1
14 black āter ˈaːter black, dark coloured EXCLUDE. ātra (f.), ātrum (n.). ... View 1
15 blood cruor 'kruor blood (fresh or clotted) from a wound gen. cruōris. EXCLUDED. Exact meaning ... View 1
15 blood sanguīs ˈsaŋgwiːs blood (in its normal fluid state) gen. sanguinis View 1
16 blow flāre ˈflaːre to blow (intrans., used of winds, people) flō, flāre, flāuī, flātum View 1
17 bone os os bone gen. ossis View 1
18 breast sinus ˈsinus cavity or fold produced by the looping of a garment EXCLUDED. Meaning 'breast' by metonymy ... View 1
18 breast mamma ˈmamːa breast (mammary gland); udder (in animals) EXCLUDED. AF mamilla View 1
18 breast pectus ˈpektus front of the thorax or chest, breast gen. pectoris. Cognate with /lexeme/27211? ... View 1
19 breathe spīrāre spiːˈraːre to breathe, respire spīrō, spīrāre, spīrāuī, spīrātum View 1
20 burn cremāre kreˈmaːre burn; cremate EXCLUDED. View 1
20 burn ūrō ˈuːroː to burn ūrō, ūrere, ūssi, ūstum. "brenne, ... View 1
20 burn ardēre arˈdeːre to catch alight. burn ārdeō, ārdēre, ārsī, ārsum View 1
21 child puer ˈpuer non-adult male, boy Gen. puerī. View 1
22 cloud nūbēs ˈnuːbeːs cloud nūbis View 1
22 cloud nimbus ˈnimbus rain-cloud, downpour EXCLUDED. View 0
23 cold frīgidus ˈfriːgidus cold, chilly frīgidī (adjective) View 1
24 come uenīre weˈniːre to come ueniō, uenīre, uēnī, uentum View 1
25 count numerāre numeˈraːre to add up, count numerō, numerāre, numerāvī, numerātum View 1
26 cut secāre seˈkaːre to cut secō, secāre, secuī, sectum View 1
27 day diēs ˈdieːs the period from sunrise to sunset, day gen. diēī View 1
28 die morī ˈmoriː to die Middle (deponent) verb: morior, morī, ... View 1
29 dig fodere ˈfodere to dig fodiō, fodere, fōdī, fossum; identical ... View 1
30 dirty sordidus ˈsordidus foul with dirt, dirty, grimy, filthy, unwashed cognate with 'black' in /cognate/188/ ... View 1
31 dog canis ˈkanis dog, hound canis View 1
32 drink bibere ˈbibere to drink (a liquid) bibō, bibere, bibī View 1
33 dry siccus ˈsikːus free from extraneous moisture, dry adj. siccus, sicca, siccum. ( ... View 1
34 dull hebes ˈhebes having a dull edge or point, blunt hebetis; etym. dub. (Buck) View 1
34 dull obtūsus obtuːsus dull EXCLUDED. View 1
35 dust puluis ˈpulwis dust (lying on ground, surfaces, etc.) pulueris View 1
36 ear auris ˈauris ear auris View 1
37 earth humus ˈhumus surface of the earth, ground humī; EXCLUDED. View 1
37 earth terra ˈterːa the ground, the substance of the earth terrae View 1
38 eat edere ˈedere to eat edō, edere, ēdī, ēsus (irregular ... View 1
39 egg ōuum ˈoːwum egg ōuī View 1
40 eye oculus ˈokulus eye oculī View 1
41 fall cadere ˈkadere to fall (down, over) cadō, cadere, cecidī, cāsum View 1
42 far longē ˈlongeː over a great extent, a long way, far EXCLUDED. View 1
42 far procul ˈprokul in a position some distance away; far away, far Evidently related to procere, procerus, ... View 1
43 fat crassus ˈkrasːus fat, stout, plump EXCLUDED. View 1
43 fat adeps ˈadeps soft animal fat as used for various purposes, lard, grease adipis. View 0
44 father pater ˈpater father gen. patris View 1
45 fear timēre tiˈmeːre to experience fear, be afraid timeō, timēre, timuī View 1
46 feather plūma ˈpluːma a feather; a growth of feathers, plumage Gen. plūmae View 1
46 feather penna ˈpenːa a wing (of a bird or other creature); feather pennae; also 'wing' EXCLUDED. View 1
47 few paucī ˈpau̯kiː a small number, few paucōrum. Grammatically plural in ... View 1
48 fight pugnāre pugˈnaːre to fight pugnō, pugnāre, pugnāuī, pugnātum View 1
49 fingernail unguis ˈungwis nail gen. unguis View 1
50 fire ignis ˈignis the process of combustion, fire gen. ignis View 1
51 fish piscis ˈpiskis fish gen. piscis View 1
52 five quīnque ˈkʷiːnkʷe five Indeclinable. View 1
53 float fluitāre fluiˈtaːre to be carried about or along by the waves, float, drift fluitō, fluitāre, fluitāvī, fluitātum. Buck ... View 1
54 flow fluere ˈfluere to flow, run (of liquid movement) fluō, fluere, fluxī, fluxum. Also ... View 1
55 flower flōs floːs flower, blossom, bloom gen. flōris. View 1
56 fly uolāre woˈlaːre to fly uolō, uolāre, uolāvī, uolātum View 1
57 fog nebula ˈnebula mist, fog nebulae. From PIE *nebh-elah₂ ... View 1
58 foot pēs peːs foot gen. pedis View 1
59 four quattuor ˈkʷatːuor four View 1
60 freeze gelāre geˈlaːre turn to ice, freeze gelō, gelāre, gelāuī, gelātum View 1
61 fruit pōmum ˈpoːmum fruit, orchard fruit pōmī; etym. dub. View 1
62 full plēnus pleːnus containing within itself all that it will hold, full plēnī; plēnus, plēna, plēnum. View 1
63 give dare ˈdare to give dō, dare, dedī, datum. View 1
64 good bonus ˈbonus good bonī; bonus, bona, bonum. ... View 1
65 grass grāmen ˈgraːmen grass grāminis. (Used in plural ... View 1
65 grass herba ˈherba a small plant or herb EXCLUDED. View 1
66 green uiridis ˈwiridis green (as the colour of growing plants, foliage, and sim.) uiridis View 1
67 guts intestīna intesˈtiːna intestines, guts Lit. pl. of intestīnum 'the ... View 1
68 hair capillī kaˈpilːiː hair capillōrum. Plural noun; capillus ... View 1
69 hand manus ˈmanus hand manūs. Also 'forepaw' (of ... View 1
70 he is is he Anaphoric pronoun ( ea, ... View 1
71 head caput ˈkaput head (of humans or animals) capitis View 1
72 hear audīre au̯ˈdiːre to hear audiō, audīre, audīuī, audītum View 1
73 heart cor kor heart cordis View 1
74 heavy grauis ˈɡrawis heavy, weighty grauis View 1
75 here hīc hiːk in this place, here Adv. related to hic, haec, ... View 1
76 hit ferīre feˈriːre to strike (with the hand or other part of the body) feriō, ferīre (no perf., p.p.p. ... View 1
77 hold tenēre teˈneːre to hold in the hand or other part of the body, grasp teneō, tenēre, tenuī, tentum View 1
78 horn cornū ˈkornuː horn (of an animal) cornūs View 1
79 how quī kʷiː By what means? In what way? How? Old ablative, locative, or instrumental ... View 1
79 how quōmodo ˈkʷoːmodo In what way? How? Univerbation of phrase quō modō ... View 1
79 how quam kʷam to what degree? to what extent? EXCLUDED. View 1
80 hunt uēnāri weːˈnaːri to go hunting, hunt uēnor, uenāri, uenātum (middle/deponent verb) View 1
81 husband marītus maˈriːtus husband, married person marītī. As masculine the ... View 1
83 ice glaciēs glaˈkieːs ice glaciēī View 1
84 if siː if, supposing that View 1
85 in in in in, within; into Preposition. Meaning with motion 'into' ... View 1
86 kill occīdere oˈkːiːdere to cause the death of, kill, slaughter EXCLUDED. View 1
86 kill interficere interˈfikere to do away with, put to death, kill interficiō, interficere, interfēcī, interfectum View 0
87 knee genu ˈɡenu knee of a human being, corresponding part in other creatures gen. genūs View 1
88 know scīre ˈskiːre to know (a fact) sciō, scīre, scīuī, scītum View 1
88 know nōscere ˈnoːskere come to know, recognise EXCLUDED. Early Latin gnōscere. View 1
89 lake lacus ˈlakus lake, pond, pool gen. lacūs View 1
90 laugh rīdēre riːˈdeːre to laugh rīdeō, rīdēre, rīsī, rīsum View 1
91 leaf folium ˈfolium leaf (of a plant) gen. foliī View 1
92 left sinister siˈnister situated on the left side, left sinister, sinistra, sinistrum View 1
93 leg crūs kruːs leg (of a man, beast, etc.) gen. crūris. View 1
94 lie iacēre jaˈkeːre to be in a recumbent position, lie iaceō, iacēre, iacuī, iacitum View 1
95 live uīuere ˈwiːwere to be alive, live uīuō, uīuere, uīxī, uīctum View 1
96 liver iecur ˈjekur liver gen. iecoris or iecinoris View 1
97 long longus ˈlongus having (great) linear extent, long gen. longī; longus, longa, longum View 1
98 louse pēdiculus peːˈdikulus louse gen. pedīculī View 1
99 man uir wir adult male person, man gen. uirī View 1
100 many multī multiː many gen. multōrum; (fem. multae, neut. ... View 1
101 meat carō ˈkaroː flesh (of animals); meat (as prepared or intended for eating) gen. carnis; cf. Umb. karu ... View 1
102 moon lūna ˈluːna moon gen. lūnae; cognate with /lexeme/21993/ View 1
103 mother māter ˈmaːter mother gen. mātris View 1
104 mountain mōns moːns mountain, hill gen. montis View 1
105 mouth ōs oːs mouth (of a person or animal) gen. ōris. View 1
106 name nōmen ˈnoːmen name gen. nōminis View 1
107 narrow angustus aŋˈgustus narrow, confined, small (of or in space) gen. angustī; antonym 'lātus' View 1
108 near prope ˈprope at a short distance, in close proximity, near, nearby comp. propius, superl. proxime View 1
109 neck collum ˈkolːum the neck (of men and animals) collī View 1
110 new nouus ˈnowus made or brought into existence for the first time, new gen. nouī View 1
111 night nox noks the time between sunset and sunrise, night gen. noctis View 1
112 nose nāsus ˈnaːsus nose gen. nāsī View 1
113 not nōn noːn not Adv. Regular negative of a ... View 1
114 old uetus ˈwetus having lived/been in existence for a long time, old gen. ueteris View 1
115 one ūnus ˈuːnus one (in number), a single gen. ūnius View 1
116 other alius ˈalius other, another alīus; alius alia, aliud View 1
116 other alter ˈalter other, other (of two) alterius; alter, altera, alterum View 1
117 person persōna perˈsoːna mask (as worn by actors); character (in a play) EXCLUDED. View 1
117 person homō ˈhomoː gen. hominis View 1
118 play lūdere ˈluːdere to play, sport, play a game, have fun, make merry, amuse oneself lūdō, lūdere, lūsī, lūsus; IE ... View 1
119 pull trahere ˈtrahere move by pulling, drag trahō, trahere, taxī, tractum View 1
120 push trūdere ˈtruːdere to thrust, push, shove trūdō, trūdere, trūsī, trūsum; < ... View 0
121 rain pluuia ˈpluwia fall of rain, rain pluuiae View 1
122 red ruber ˈruber red (including shades of orange) ruber, rubra, rubrum ( rubrī) View 1
123 right rectus ˈrektus straight, correct rectī; rectus, recta, rectum; ... View 1
124 rightside dexter ˈdekster situated on the right side, right-hand dexter, dextera, dexterum ( dexterī) View 1
125 river flūmen ˈfluːmen a river or stream flūminis View 1
126 road via ˈwia a track made for the purpose of travel from one place to another, road viae View 1
126 road sēmita seːmita side-path, pavement, alley EXCLUDED. View 1
127 root rādix ˈraːdiks root (of a plant, tree, etc.) rādīcis View 1
128 rope fūnis ˈfuːnis rope, cable fūnis. View 1
129 rotten putridus ˈputridus rotten, decaying putridī. Cf. putris, -is ... View 1
130 round rotundus roˈtundus shaped like a wheel, round, circular rotundī; rotundus, rotunda, rotundum View 1
131 rub fricāre friˈkaːre to rub, chafe fricō, fricāre, fricuī, frictum View 1
132 salt sāl saːl common salt (sodium chloride) salis View 1
133 sand (h)arēna (h)aˈreːna sand; (pl. collect., also) grains of sand Alternative non-aspirated form arēna (asēna). ... View 1
134 say dicere ˈdiːkere to talk, speak, say, declare dīcō, dīcere, dīxī, dīctum View 1
135 scratch scabere ˈskabere to scratch (a part of the body), esp. in order to relieve irritation scabō, scabere, scābī. View 1
136 sea mare ˈmare sea maris. View 1
137 see uidēre wiˈdeːre to perceive with the eyes, see uideō, uidēre, uīdī, uīsum View 1
138 seed sēmen ˈseːmen that which is sown, the seed of plants sēminis View 1
139 sew suere ˈsuere to make by stitching together, sew suō, suere, suī, sūtum View 1
140 sharp acer ˈaːker sharp, pointed EXCLUDED. View 1
140 sharp acūtus aˈkuːtus sharpened, pointed, tapering acūtī; acūtus, acūta, acūtum View 1
141 short breuis ˈbrewis having a small spatial extent, short breuis. View 1
142 sing canere ˈkanere to sing, chant canō, canere, cecinī, cantum (cf. ... View 1
143 sit sedēre seˈdeːre to sit, be seated sedeō, sedēre, sēdī, sessum View 1
144 skin pellis ˈpelːis hide (of an animal) EXCLUDED. View 1
144 skin cutis ˈkutis cutis View 1
145 sky caelum ˈkae̯lum sky, firmament caelī View 1
146 sleep dormīre dorˈmiːre to be or fall asleep, sleep dormiō, dormīre, dormīuī, dormītum View 1
147 small paruus ˈparwus small in size or extent, amount or quantity paruī; cogn. with 'few' ... View 0
148 smell olfacere olˈfacere smell (trans.), perceive odour olfaciō, olfacere, olfēcī, olfactum. View 1
149 smoke fūmus ˈfuːmus smoke, fumes gen. fūmī View 1
150 smooth lēuis ˈleːwis free from irregularities of surface, smooth lēuis. Not to be ... View 1
151 snake anguis ˈaŋgwis snake, serpent Of the two Latin "snake" ... View 1
151 snake serpēns ˈserpeːns snake, serpent Of the two Latin "snake" ... View 1
152 snow nix niks snow niuis View 1
153 some aliqui ˈalɪkʷiː View 1
154 spit spuere ˈspuere to eject saliva, etc., from the mouth spuō, spuere, spuī, spūtum View 1
155 split scindere ˈskindere to divide deeply by a violent blow, etc.; split, cleave scindō, scindere, scicidī, scissum View 1
155 split findere ˈfindere to split apart, cleave findō, findere, fidiī, fissus (EXCLUDE?) View 1
156 squeeze premere ˈpremere to exert a steady force against, apply pressure to, press; press in one's grasp, grip tight; press together, squeeze premō, premere, pressī, pressus View 1
157 stab fodere ˈfodere to pierce, prick, prod, jab, stab; to thrust home (blows) fodiō, fodere, fōdī, fossum; identical ... View 1
158 stand stāre staːre to stand, be in a standing position, stand up (of men, animals) stō, stāre, stetī, statum View 1
159 star stēlla ˈsteːlːa star stēllae View 1
160 stick baculum ˈbakulum staff, walking stick baculī View 1
161 stone lapis ˈlapis stone, pebble lapidis; IE *lep- (Walde ... View 1
161 stone petra ˈpetra rock, boulder, crag EXCLUDED. early loan word from ... View 1
162 straight rectus ˈrektus straight (as opposed to crooked) rectī; rectus, recta, rectum. View 1
163 suck sūgere ˈsuːgere to suck (a liquid) sūgō, sūgere, sūxī, sūctum View 1
164 sun sōl soːl the sun (as a heavenly body) sōlis View 1
165 swell tumēre tuˈmeːre to become distended or inflated, swell tumeō, tumēre, tumuī View 1
166 swim nāre ˈnaːre to swim nō, nāre, nāuī View 1
167 tail cauda ˈkau̯da tail (of an animal, bird, fish, or other creature) caudae View 1
168 that ille ˈilːe that (denoting a person or thing in a place indicated by a speaker) illīus; ille, illa, illud View 1
169 there illīc EXCLUDED. View 1
169 there ibi ˈibiː in that place, there cf. 'here' in /cognate/2691/. < ... View 1
170 they eiː they eī, eae, ea ( eōrum); ... View 1
171 thick crassus ˈkrasːus having considerable thickness in section, thick crassī; crassus, crassa, crassum ... View 0
171 thick spissus ˈspisːus dense, solid, compact (of solids); thick, viscous (of liquids) EXCLUDED. View 1
172 thin macer ˈmaker thin, lean, scraggy (of men and animals) EXCLUDED. macer, macra, macrum. View 1
172 thin tenuis ˈtenuis slender, thin (of things small in cross-section) tenuis View 1
173 think cōgitāre koːgiˈtaːre to think, think about, ponder, consider cōgitō, cōgitāre, cōgitāuī, cōgitātum View 0
174 this hic hik this (indicating a particular person or thing that is present in place, time, or thought) huius; hic, haec, hoc View 1
175 thou tuː thou, you (sg.) tuī, tibi, ... View 1
176 three trēs treːs three trium View 1
177 throw iacere ˈjakere to propel through the air, throw, cast iaciō, iacere, iēcī, iactum View 1
178 tie ligāre liˈgaːre to fasten, bind, tie ligō, ligāre, ligāuī, ligātum View 1
179 tongue lingua ˈliŋɡwa tongue linguae View 1
180 tooth dens dens tooth dentis View 1
181 tree arbor ˈarbor tree arboris View 1
182 turn uertere ˈwertere to cause to revolve or move about a centre, turn, spin uertō, uertere, uertī, uersum View 1
183 two duo ˈduo two duōrum View 1
184 vomit uomere ˈwomere to be sick, vomit (intr.) uomō, uomere, uomuī, uomitum View 1
185 walk ambulāre ambuˈlaːre to go on foot, walk ambulō, ambulāre, ambulāuī, ambulātum View 1
186 warm tepidus ˈtepidus having a warm, but not hot, temperature, lukewarm tepidī; tepidus, tepida, tepidum View 1
186 warm calidus ˈkalidus having a high temperature, hot; made hot by heating EXCLUDED. View 1
187 wash lauāre laˈwaːre to clean by washing, wash lauō, lauāre, lauāuī, lauātum View 1
188 water aqua ˈakʷa water aquae View 1
189 we nōs noːs we Gen. nostrī/nostrūm View 1
190 wet ūmidus ˈuːmidus wet, moist ūmidī; ūmidus, ūmida, ūmidum View 1
191 what quid kʷid what? Neut. interrogative singular. View 1
192 when quandō ˈkwandoː At what time? when? Alternative form quando (with iambic ... View 1
193 where ubi ˈubi In what place? where? Alt. ubī (w/o iambic shortening). ... View 1
194 white albus ˈalbus white, light coloured albī; albus, alba, album View 1
195 who quī kʷiː interrogative pronoun, masc. (quae ... View 1
196 wide lātus ˈlaːtus having a specified transverse extent, broad, wide gen. lātī; lātus, lāta, lātum. ... View 1
197 wife uxor ˈuksor wife uxōris. cognate with 'husband' ... View 0
198 wind uentus ˈwentus wind uentī View 1
199 wing penna penːa wing (of a bird or other creature); feather pennae. 'wing, feather', cf. ... View 1
199 wing āla ˈaːla wing (of a bird or insect) ālae View 1
200 wipe tergēre terˈgeːre to rub clean, wipe, polish tergeō, tergēre, tersī, tersum View 1
201 with cum kum with View 1
202 woman fēmina ˈfeːmina woman; female EXCLUDED. View 1
202 woman mulier ˈmulier woman mulieris View 1
203 woods silva ˈsilwa an area of woodland, forest, wood silvae View 1
204 worm uermis ˈwermis worm, maggot, or some other small creature of sim. appearance uermis View 1
206 year annus ˈanːus the period of the sun's apparent revolution, the natural or astronomical year annī View 1
207 yellow flāuus ˈflaːwus yellow (esp. pale yellow or golden) flāuī; flāuus, flāua, flāuum; ... View 0
205 you uōs woːs you (pl.) Gen. uestrūm/uestrī View 1

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