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Classical Armenian (all)

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Classical Armenian:
Description From the Ringe list. Verbs are cited in 1sg; the vowel combination /ow/ is a orthographic variant of /u/ (Martirosyan, for example, favours /u/).

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ID Meaning Source Form Phonological Form Gloss Notes nCog
82 I զիս z-is me (ACC) View 1
82 I ես ɛs Traditionally pronounced [jɛs]; suppletive oblique ... View 1
1 all ամենայն ɑmɛn-ɑjn Also 'each; every (thing)' To be analyzed as ամեն- ... View 1
2 and եւ ɛu̯ also "also; likewise" Traditionally pronounced [jɛʋ]; contrast with ... View 1
3 animal անասուն ɑnɑsun orig. "not-speaking; (hence) non-human; irrational" Analyzable as ան- an- 'un-; ... View 1
4 ashes աճիւն ačiwn View 1
4 ashes մոխիր mɔχiɾ remains of a fire, dust աճիւն ačiwn seems to specifically ... View 1
5 at i / y- View 0
5 at առ ɑr View 1
6 back թիքունք tʰikownkʰ View 0
6 back մէջ(ք) mēǰ(-k‘) mēǰ – originally ‘middle, midst, ... View 0
6 back կռթունք kur(-)tʰ-un-kʰ Traditionally pronounced [kərtʰuŋkʰ]; cf. կուռն ... View 0
7 bad չար čʰar View 0
7 bad վատ vɑt View 2
8 bark կեղեւ kɛɫɛu̯ also "peel; rind; husk" Traditionally pronounced [kɛʁɛʋ]. View 1
9 because զի zi 'in order to; to the end that' Often preceded by վասն vasn ... View 1
9 because քանզի k‘anzi View 0
10 belly որովայն orovayn View 0
10 belly փոր pʰɔɾ Also 'womb; bowels; entrails ' View 1
11 big մեծ mɛt͡s View 1
12 bird թռչուն tʰir-tʃ͡ʰ-un Orig. "flying (one)"; cf. թռչիմ [tʰərˈtʃʰim] 'I fly', ultimately related to PIE *pter- 'feather' Traditionally pronounced [tʰərˈtʃʰun] <tʰṙčʰown> View 1
12 bird հաւ haw Strohmeyer 1983 concludes that, in ... View 1
13 bite խածանեմ xacanem Also 'to sting'. Often refers ... View 1
13 bite կծ(ան)եմ kit͡s(-ɑn)-ɛ-m Also 'to sting'. Traditionally pronounced [kət͡s(ɑn)ɛm]; cf. կսկիծ ... View 1
14 black սեաւ se̯ɑu̯ fig. also 'sad; gloomy' Traditionally pronounced [sjɑʋ]. View 2
15 blood արիւն ɑɾiu̯n Fig. also 'kin, relation' Traditionally pronounced [ɑɾjun]. View 1
16 blow շնչեմ ʃunʧʰ-ɛ-m Identical to /lexeme/31054/ 'breathe'. View 1
16 blow փչեմ pʰu(-)tʃ͡ʰ-ɛ-m ˈI blow; puff, inflate' Traditionally pronounced [pʰətʃ͡ʰɛm]; Cf. փուք ... View 1
17 bone ոսկր ɔsk-ɾ Traditionally pronounced [ʋɔskəɾ]. View 1
18 breast լանջք lanǰk‘ Probably etymologically connected with Gk. ... View 0
18 breast ստին stin of a woman; fig. also 'source, spring' View 1
18 breast կուրծք kuɾt͡s-kʰ Fig. also 'heart; mind' Plurale tantum; Traditionally pronounced as ... View 1
19 breathe փչեմ pʰčʰem View 1
19 breathe շնչեմ ʃunʧʰ-ɛ-m Traditionally prononced [ʃəɲˈʧʰɛm]; cf. շունչ ... View 1
20 burn այրեմ ayrem cf. Av. ātar - / ... View 1
20 burn վառեմ vaṙem View 0
20 burn վառիմ u̯ɑr-i-m Specifically 'to be on fire' View 0
21 child մանուկ manowk Also 'youngster; young soldier; servant' Cf. մանր man-r 'small' View 1
21 child տղայ t(ə)łɑɪ̯ Traditionally pronounced [təˈʁɑ]. View 1
22 cloud ամպ ɑmp View 1
23 cold ցուրտ tsʰuɾt Also 'cold water'. The word ... View 1
24 come գամ ɡɑ-m cf. Hitt. uu̯ami 'to come', ... View 1
25 count թուեմ tʰiu̯-ɛ-m Cf. թիւ /tʰiu̯/ 'number'; also ... View 1
26 cut հատանեմ hɑt-ɑn-ɛ-m Also 'separate; castrate' and fig. 'decide; determine' Unclear etymology. The term should ... View 0
27 day տիւ tiu̯ specifically "part of day when the sun shines" Refers to the light part ... View 1
27 day աւր awr day [24 hrs]. Also 'time, ... View 1
28 die մեռանիմ mɛr-ɑn-i-m meṙanim View 1
29 dig փորեմ pʰɔɾ-ɛ-m p‘orem View 1
29 dig պեղեմ pełem View 0
29 dig բրեմ brem View 0
30 dirty աղտեղի ɑɫt-ɛɫ-i Traditionally prononced [ɑχtɛˈʁi]. View 0
31 dog շուն ʃun շուն šown View 1
32 drink ըմպեմ əmp-ɛ-m əmpem View 1
33 dry gaws View 0
33 dry չոր t͡ʃʰɔɾ čʰor View 1
33 dry ցամաք cʰamakʰ View 0
34 dull բութ butʰ Also fig. 'stupid; slow-witted' bowtʰ View 1
35 dust փոշի pʰɔʃi pʰoši View 1
36 ear ունկն unk-n Traditionally pronounced [uŋkən]; pl. ականջք ... View 1
37 earth հող hoł i.e. 'ground, soil', also 'burial ... View 0
37 earth երկիր erkir Possible connection with Lith. erdve ... View 1
38 eat ուտեմ ut-ɛ-m Irregular aorist: կերայ ker-a-y 'I ... View 1
39 egg ձու dzu View 1
40 eye ակն ɑkn pl. (< dual) աչք ač‘k‘ View 1
41 fall անկանիմ Probably derived from IE *sn̥gw- ... View 1
42 far հեռի hɛri View 1
43 fat ճարպ both 'grease; tallow' and 'fat; plump' < Iran: MPers clp 'mild, ... View 1
44 father հայր View 1
45 fear երկնչիմ erknč‘im Cf. /lexeme/18719/. Pedersen (1906) ... View 1
46 feather փետուր pʰetowr pʰetowr View 1
47 few սակաւ sakaw sakaw View 0
48 fight պատերազմիմ paterazmim View 0
48 fight մարտնչիմ martnč‘im View 0
49 fingernail մագիլ magil claw View 0
49 fingernail եղունգն eɫungn Derived from PIE *h3nogwh- ... View 1
50 fire հուր howr View 1
50 fire կրակ krak View 0
51 fish ձուկն jowkn View 1
52 five հինգ hing hing View 1
53 float լողամ lołam Identical to /lexeme/28627/ 'to swim'. View 1
54 flow հոսեմ hɔsɛm 'to make flow, pour down, winnow' View 0
54 flow հեղում hełum ‘to pour, fill, flow over’ Also variant հեղանիմ heł-an-i-m. Usually ... View 0
55 flower ծաղիկ całik View 1
56 fly թռչիմ tʰṙčʰim Together with t'er 'side', t'er ... View 1
57 fog բալ bal Also 'mist'. In dialect, also ... View 0
57 fog մէգ mêg Linked with Skt. meghá- m. ... View 1
57 fog մառախուղ maṙaxuł View 0
58 foot ոտն ot-n View 1
59 four չորք čʰorkʰ View 1
60 freeze սառչիմ saṙ-č'-im Connected with OIc. hjarn n. ... View 1
60 freeze պաղիմ pałim View 0
61 fruit միրգ mirg View 0
61 fruit պտուղ ptowł Also 'pupil (of the eye); ... View 1
62 full լի li Also 'abundant; perfect, whole’, adv. ... View 1
63 give տամ tam View 1
64 good լաւ law View 1
64 good բարի bari Possibly an Iranian loanword. If ... View 1
65 grass խոտ xot View 1
66 green կանաչ kanačʰ View 1
67 guts ընդերք ənderkʰ View 1
67 guts աղիք ałikʰ View 1
68 hair հեր her View 1
68 hair մազ maz < Syr. mezze 'crines parvi'. View 1
69 hand ձեռն jeṙn View 1
70 he նա na Also 'that' (with reference to ... View 0
71 head գլուխ glowx Also 'end, summit; chief'. View 1
72 hear լսեմ lsem View 1
73 heart սիրտ sirt View 1
74 heavy ծանր canr View 1
75 here աստ ast View 0
76 hit հարկանեմ harkanem Also 'to beat'. Cf. Old ... View 0
77 hold ունիմ ownim Also 'to take, have, obtain'. ... View 1
78 horn եղջեւր ełǰewr View 1
79 how որպէս orpēs View 0
79 how զիարդ ziard View 0
80 hunt որսամ orsam View 1
81 husband այր ayr Identical to /lexeme/28547/ 'man'. View 1
83 ice սառն saṙn Connected with OIc. hjarn n. ... View 1
84 if եթե etʰe View 1
85 in ի ~ յ- i ~ j- "in", but also "to" or "from' a LOCATION (depending on case) Traditional pronunciation: ի [i] (before ... View 1
86 kill սպանանեմ spananem View 1
87 knee ծունր cownr View 1
88 know գիտեմ gitem View 1
89 lake լիճ lič View 1
89 lake ծովակ covak View 0
90 laugh ծիծաղիմ cicałim View 1
91 leaf տերեւ terew Cf. /lexeme/28664/ 'wing'. View 1
92 left ահեակ aheak View 0
92 left ձախ jax View 1
93 leg սրունք srownkʰ Also 'shank'. View 1
94 lie ankeal kam View 0
95 live կեամ keam View 1
96 liver լեարդ leard View 1
97 long երկայն erkayn View 1
97 long երկար erkar View 1
98 louse ոջիլ oǰil voˈtʃʰil View 1
99 man այր ayr Identical to /lexeme/28526/ 'husband'. View 1
100 many բազում bazowm View 1
100 many յոլով yolov Also 'much, plenty, numerous; many ... View 1
101 meat միս mis View 1
102 moon լուսին lowsin View 1
103 mother մայր mayr View 1
104 mountain լեառն leaṙn View 1
104 mountain սար sar Also 'tip, end; top, summit; ... View 1
105 mouth բերան beran View 1
106 name անուն anown View 1
107 narrow neł XXX View 1
107 narrow anjowk Also 'difficult'. View 1
108 near մերձ merj Connected with Gr. μέχρι 'as ... View 0
108 near մաւտ mawt Also spelled մօտ. View 1
109 neck պարանոց paranocʰ Also 'throat' and 'straight, isthmus' View 0
110 new նոր nor View 1
111 night գիշեր gišer View 1
112 nose քիթ k'it' Also of unknown origin. View 0
112 nose ունչք ownčʰkʰ Considered to be a word ... View 0
113 not ոչ očʰ View 1
114 old ծեր cer Also 'old man'. View 1
114 old հին hin View 1
115 one մի mi View 1
116 other ayl XXX View 1
116 other miws potentially analyzable as: mi-(e)w-s, i.e., ... View 1
117 person մարդ mard View 1
117 person անձն anjn Also 'ipse'; soul, spirit; body’. ... View 1
118 play խաղան xałam View 1
119 pull ձգեմ jgem View 0
119 pull քարշեմ kʰaršem Also 'to draw, drag'. View 1
120 push młem View 0
121 rain անձրեւ ɑnd͡zɾɛu̯ View 1
122 red կարմիր kɑɾmiɾ View 2
123 right ճիշդ čišd Also 'exact, precise; strict'. View 0
123 right ուղիղ owłił also 'straight' View 1
123 right ճշմարիտ čšmarit i.e. 'true, real, sincere' View 0
124 rightside աջ View 1
125 river գետ get View 1
126 road ճանապարհ čanaparh Possibly < Iranian (see Olsen). View 1
126 road ուղի ułi View 0
126 road շաւիղ šawił View 0
127 root արմատ armat Also 'trunk, stem', fig. 'source, origin'. View 1
128 rope տոռն toṙn Usually derived from *dor(bh)-n-, cf. ... View 0
128 rope պարան paran View 1
128 rope malowx View 0
128 rope չուան tʃʰəvɑn View 1
129 rotten նեխեալ nexeal View 0
129 rotten փտեալ p'teal View 0
129 rotten փուտ p'ut View 0
130 round բոլոր(ակ) bolor(ak) Also 'circular'. Derived from PIE ... View 1
131 rub špʰem View 1
132 salt աղ View 1
133 sand աւազ awaz View 1
134 say ասեմ asem View 1
135 scratch քերեմ kʰerem Also 'to rub, chop, skin’. View 1
136 sea ծով cov View 1
137 see տեսանեմ tesanem View 1
138 seed սերմն sermn View 1
139 sew կարեմ karem View 1
140 sharp cʰicʰ Secondary lexeme. View 0
140 sharp սուր sowr View 1
141 short կարճ karč View 1
142 sing երգեմ ergem View 1
143 sit նստիմ nstim View 1
144 skin մորթ mortʰ View 1
145 sky երկինք erkinkʰ View 1
146 sleep քունեմ kʰunem View 0
146 sleep nnǰem View 0
147 small փոքր pʰokʰr Traditionally vaguely connected with the ... View 1
148 smell հոտոտիմ hot-ot-i-m i.e. 'to scent; sniff up' From reduplicated *hot-hot-. Probably derived ... View 1
149 smoke ծուխ cowx View 1
149 smoke մուխ mux Not attested in 'Golden Age' ... View 1
150 smooth hartʰ View 1
150 smooth ողորկ ołork i.e. 'sleek; glossy; polished' View 0
151 snake աւձ awj View 1
152 snow ձիւն jiwn View 1
153 some imn View 0
153 some okʰ someone View 0
153 some inč‘ View 0
154 spit թքանեմ tʰukʰanem Cf. թուք tʰukʰ 'spit, spittle; ... View 1
155 split c‘ele/um View 0
155 split ճեղքեմ čełk‘em View 0
155 split herjanem / herjum 'be split, torn, ripped' View 0
156 squeeze kʰamem View 1
156 squeeze čmlem Also 'to press'. Together with ... View 0
157 stab xoc‘em pierce View 1
157 stab mxê pierce View 0
158 stand կամ kam Also ‘to stay, halt; to ... View 0
159 star աստղ ɑst-ł View 1
160 stick ǰin View 0
160 stick gawazan View 0
160 stick bir View 1
161 stone վէմ vêm View 0
161 stone քար kʰar May be connected with Olr ... View 1
162 straight ուղիղ ułił i.e. 'direct(ly)'; also fig. 'correct; loyal; upright' View 1
163 suck ccem According to Ačaṙyan (HAB 2: ... View 1
163 suck diem Also 'to drink mother’s milk'. View 1
164 sun արեւ ɑɾɛu̯ Also 'sunlight; life'. Derives from ... View 1
164 sun արեգակն ɑɾɛɡ-ɑk-n i.e. 'the Sun' as the heavenly body View 1
165 swell uṙnum / uṙč‘im View 1
165 swell aytnum View 1
166 swim լողամ lołam Identical to /lexeme/28496/ 'to float'. ... View 1
167 tail agi View 1
167 tail tutn / ttun Mostly for fish, snakes, birds. View 0
167 tail poč‘ Rare in literature, widespread in ... View 0
167 tail jet Connected with Av. zadah- m. ... View 0
168 that ayn Same root as in /cognate/2435/ ... View 1
169 there and View 0
170 they nokʰa View 1
171 thick stowar View 1
172 thin nurb View 0
172 thin anawsr View 1
172 thin բարակ barak i.e. 'subtle; fine, delicate' Cf. also բարակ ճանապարհ '(lit.) ... View 0
172 thin նիհար nihar i.e. 'lean, skinny' View 0
173 think zmtaw acem View 0
173 think xorhim View 0
174 this ays With reference to the speaking ... View 1
175 thou դու dow Exceptionally from PIE *t-, presumably ... View 1
176 three երեք erekʰ Oblique stem form: երի- eri-. View 1
177 throw ənkenum More precisely: ‘to cause to ... View 0
177 throw jgem View 0
177 throw arkanem View 0
177 throw arjakem View 0
178 tie կապեմ kapem View 1
179 tongue lezow View 1
180 tooth ատամն atamn View 1
181 tree ծառ caṙ Cf. /lexeme/28668/ 'woods'. View 1
182 turn daṙnam Also 'to go/come back, return; ... View 1
182 turn šrǰem View 0
183 two երկու erkow View 1
184 vomit ործ(կ)ամ orc(k)am View 1
185 walk šrǰim View 1
185 walk քայլեմ k‘aylem View 0
186 warm ջերմ d͡ʒɛɾm ǰerm View 1
187 wash լուանամ lu-ɑn-ɑ-m View 1
188 water ջուր ǰowr View 1
189 we մեք mekʰ View 1
189 we մեզ mez us (ACC/DAT) View 1
190 wet խոնաւ xonaw View 1
190 wet նայ nay View 0
190 wet գէջ ɡɛd͡ʒ Also 'moist; lascivious' gēǰ From QIE *gwhe/oidh-io-, cf. ... View 0
191 what զի zi View 1
191 what զինչ z-i(-)nč‘ View 1
192 when յորժամ yoržam View 0
192 when երբ erb View 1
193 where ուր owr View 1
194 white սպիտակ spitak Loan < MPers spytk' (?). View 1
195 who ո(վ) o(v) Martirosyan thinks it is more ... View 1
196 wide յաղթ yaɫt‘ Also 'large, broad, spacious (land, ... View 1
196 wide լայն layn 'wide, broad', also 'spacial; extensive' View 1
197 wife կին kin Identical to /lexeme/28667/ 'woman'. View 1
198 wind քամի k'ami Late form but widespread in ... View 0
198 wind այս ays Also 'spirit, devil'. View 0
198 wind հողմ hołm View 1
199 wing թեւ tʰew Also 'arm'. Cf. /lexeme/28538/ 'leaf'. View 1
200 wipe ջնջեմ ǰnǰem Also ‘to efface, wipe clean; ... View 0
200 wipe սրբեմ surb-e-m I.e. 'to wipe off; sponge'; also 'to clean; purify; sanctify, consecrate' A denominative of սուրբ sowrb ... View 0
201 with հանդերձ handerj i.e. 'together with' A loan from Iranian. View 0
202 woman կին kin Identical to /lexeme/28662/ 'wife'. View 1
203 woods անտառ antaṙ Also (once) 'wood' View 1
203 woods մայրի mayri Also 'forest, thicket’. Compared with ... View 1
204 worm որդն ord-n View 1
206 year ամ am Connected to Skt. sámā- f. ... View 0
206 year տարի tari View 1
207 yellow դեղին dełin Cf. variant դեղբ dełb. View 1
205 you ձեզ jez you (ACC) View 1
205 you դուք du-kʰ From /cognate/145/. It has been ... View 1
208 ant մրջիւն mrǰiwn View 0
210 navel պորտ pɔɾt Also 'belly; middle, center'. View 0
211 fly_N ճանճ t͡ʃʰɑnt͡ʃʰ View 0
212 yesterday երէկ erek View 0

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