Language | Lexeme | Phonological | Meaning | Notes | Rating | ||
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|

1 | Proto-Indo-European | *só, *séh₂, *tód | that | ★★★ | |||

2 | Tocharian A | säm | that | cf. /lexeme/23229/ | ★★★ | ||

3 | Tocharian B | samp | that | cf. /lexeme/23434/ | ★★★ | ||

4 | Tocharian B | su | that | ★★★ | |||

5 | Albanian | ky (m.), kjo (f.) | that | split from DKB. See rather /lexeme/564/. | ★★ | ||

6 | Albanian | ai, ay (m.), ajo (f.), ata (n.) | that | Also he and she, respectively. Goes back to PAlb *a-ei, comprising (i) a deictic element (*a), and (ii) a demonstrative pronoun (-i, -jo, -ta) which may represent a conflation of PIE *so, -to with the anaphoric pronoun *e/i-. | ★★★ | ||

7 | Standard Albanian | atë | that | ★★ | |||

8 | Albanian Sicily | ai, ay (m.), ajo (f.), ata (n.) | that | Also he and she, respectively. Goes back to PAlb *a-ei, comprising (i) a deictic element (*a), and (ii) a demonstrative pronoun (-i, -jo, -ta) which may represent a conflation of PIE *so, -to with the anaphoric pronoun *e/i-. | ★★ | ||

9 | Albanian Corinth | ai, ay (m.), ajo (f.), ata (n.) | that | Also he and she, respectively. Goes back to PAlb *a-ei, comprising (i) a deictic element (*a), and (ii) a demonstrative pronoun (-i, -jo, -ta) which may represent a conflation of PIE *so, -to with the anaphoric pronoun *e/i-. | ★★ | ||

10 | Albanian Gheg | ai, ay (m.), ajo (f.), ata (n.) | that | ★★ | |||

11 | Albanian Tosk | ai, ay (m.), ajo (f.), ata (n.) | that | ★★ | |||

12 | Classical Armenian | ayn | that | Same root as in /cognate/2435/ 'this'. | ★★ | ||

13 | Armenian Eastern | ayn | ɑɪ̯n | that | ★★ | ||

14 | Armenian Western | AYT | that | ★★ | |||

15 | Avestan | hō | that | ★★★ | |||

16 | Sogdian | xw | that | Manichean | ★★★ | ||

17 | Tajik | on | ɔːn | that | AF: XAMON, rather /cognate/2436/? | ★★ | |

18 | Persian | AN (UN) | that | rather /cognate/2436/? comp. OPers. and Av. AVA- which belong to IE *u-/au- (Walde 1930: 1.186) | ★★ | ||

19 | Askunu | səkə | that | ★★★ | |||

20 | Vedic Sanskrit | sá | that | ★★★ | |||

21 | Pāḷī | tad | that | ★★★ | |||

22 | Khaskura | TIO | that | ★★ | |||

23 | Nepali | TYO | that | split from DKB, 'he, she, it' | ★★ | ||

24 | Assamese | xeito | xeito | that | Turner gives XI, TA | ★★ | |

25 | Assamese | teõ, tẽwe | that | that, he' com. gen. (honorific), Turner gives TA | ★ | ||

26 | Oriya | se(iṭa) | se(iʈa) | that | distal demonstr. | ★★★ | |

27 | Bengali | SETA, OTA | that | Turner gives SE, TAHA | ★★ | ||

28 | Sindhi | sō | that | ‘that one, m.’ | ★★ | ||

29 | Marathi | to, tī, te | to, ti:, te | that | Masc, fem, neut. | ★★ | |

30 | Kashmiri | ATH | that | split from DKB | ★★ | ||

31 | Kashmiri | TIH | that | split from DKB | ★★★ | ||

32 | Old Church Slavonic | тъ | tʊ̆ | that | Alternative lexemes are 'овъ' and 'и'. However, 'овъ' is rare in the meaning 'that' (and it can mean also 'this') and 'и' is used only in relative constructions. | ★★ | |

33 | Serbo-Croatian | taj | tâːj | that | That one which is close(r) to the interlocutor. | ★★★ | |

34 | Macedonian | тој | toj | that | That one which is close(r) to the interlocutor. | ★★★ | |

35 | Russian | тот | tɔt | that | ★★ | ||

36 | Polish | tamten | ˈtamtɛn | that | Compound word: tam '(over) there' + ten 'this'. | ★★ | |

37 | Belarusian | той | tɔj | that | ★★ | ||

38 | Ukrainian | той | tɔj | that | ★★ | ||

39 | Slovak | tamten | tamtɛn | that | ★★ | ||

40 | Czech | tamten | ˈtamtɛn | that | An alternative lexeme is 'onen' but it has additional meaninigs. | ★★ | |

41 | Sorbian Upper | tamny | ˈtamnɘ̟ | that | An adjective pronoun derived from 'tam' 'there'. | ★★★ | |

42 | Sorbian Lower | tamny | ˈtamnɘ̟ | that | An adjective pronoun derived from 'tam' 'there'. | ★★★ | |

43 | Slovenian | tisti | ˈtǐːsti | that | An alternative lexeme is 'oni'. However, it is more focused on the distance. | ★★ | |

44 | Latvian | tas | that | ★★★ ★★ | |||

45 | Lithuanian | TAS | that | ★★ | |||

46 | Old Norse | sá | saː | that | ★★★ | ||

47 | Old Norse | þat | θat | that | opp. of this: hinn, hitt | ★★★ | |

48 | Icelandic | þessi | ˈθɛsːɪ | that | ★★ | ||

49 | Icelandic | sá | sauː | that | ★★★ | ||

50 | Faroese | tann | tʰanː | that | split from DKB | ★★ | |

51 | Norwegian Riksmal | den | dɛnː | that | ★★ | ||

52 | Stavangersk | denne, dette, disse | ˈdɛ̀nːə, ˈdɛ̀tːə, ˈdɪ̀sːə | that | ★★★ | ||

53 | Old Swedish | thänne | ˈθænːe | that | ★★ | ||

54 | Old Swedish | sar | saːr | that | ★★ | ||

55 | Swedish | denne, denna | ˈdɛ̀nə, ˈdɛ̀na | that | Removed DETTA. | ★★ | |

56 | Swedish Vilhelmina | A DANA | that | ★★ | |||

57 | Swedish Uppland | ATT | that | ★★ | |||

58 | Elfdalian | eð-dar; an-dar; ą̊-dar | ɛːðˈdɑːr; ɑnˈdɑːr; õːˈdɑːr | that | "Distal" forms of N, M and F. | ★★ | |

59 | Danish | den, det | dɛn, de | that | ★★ | ||

60 | Danish Fjolde | dænd | dænʲ | that | ★★ | ||

61 | Old Gutnish | þann | that | ★★ | |||

62 | Gutnish Lau | dän där | dɛnː (dɛːr) | that | ★★ | ||

63 | Old English | sē | that | ★★★ | |||

64 | English | that | ðæt | that | ★★ | ||

65 | Frisian | dat | dɔt | that | removed DET. | ★★ | |

66 | Dutch | die, dat, gene | di, dɑt, 'ɣenə | that | ★★ | ||

67 | Flemish | DAT, DIE | that | ★★ | |||

68 | Afrikaans | DAT | that | ★★ | |||

69 | Sranan | DATI | that | ★★ | |||

70 | German | das | das | that | split from DKB | ★★ | |

71 | Pennsylvania Dutch | ASZ | that | ★★ | |||

72 | Luxembourgish | dat | that | ★★★ | |||

73 | German Switzerland | dä/die/das | that | ★★★ | |||

74 | Gothic | sa | that | ★★★ | |||

75 | Gaulish | se, so, san(a) | that | ★★ | |||

76 | Old Irish | sin | sʹinʹ | that | ★★★ | ||

77 | Middle Cornish | henna | 'hɛn:a | that | ★★★ | ||

78 | Middle Cornish | an…se | that | ★ | |||

79 | Breton | se | that | an dra se | ★★ | ||

80 | Welsh | hwnnw | that | ★★★ | |||

81 | Irish | sin | that | ★★ | |||

82 | Scottish Gaelic | sin | that | ★★★ | |||

83 | Scottish Gaelic | an...siud | an, ən...ʃʲud | that | ★★ | ||

84 | Manx | shen | that | ★★★ | |||

85 | [Legacy] Albanian T | ai, aj (m.), ajo (f.) | that | Also he and she, respectively. Goes back to PAlb *a-ei, comprising (i) a deictic element (*a), and (ii) a demonstrative pronoun (-i, -jo) which may represent a conflation of PIE *so, -to with the anaphoric pronoun *e/i-. | ★★ | ||

86 | [Legacy] Macedonian | toa | tɔa | that | split from DKB. Changed from TOJ. | ★★ | |

87 | [Legacy] Russian P | TOT | that | ★★ | |||

88 | [Legacy] Polish P | TAMTEN | that | ★★ | |||

89 | [Legacy] Byelorussian P | TOJ | that | ★★ | |||

90 | [Legacy] Ukrainian P | TOJ | that | ★★ | |||

91 | [Legacy] Czech E | TO | that | ★★ | |||

92 | [Legacy] Slovenian | TISTO | that | ★★ | |||

93 | [Legacy] Lithuanian O | TAS | that | ★★ | |||

94 | [Legacy] Breton St | an...-se | ãn...-se | that | ★★ | ||

95 | [Legacy] Breton St | hennezh | that | ★★★ | |||

96 | [Legacy] Breton Se | EN...-SE | that | ★★ | |||

97 | [Legacy] Welsh C | HWNNA | that | ★★ | |||

98 | [Legacy] Irish A | SAN | that | ★★ |