Cognate class 241

Language list: all
Wordlist: all

Notes IE *qel- 'to drive' (Walde 1930: 1.442). Cf. also Skt. kaláyati , Gr. kéllō 'drive', Lat. celer 'fast'. This root apparently meant 'drive'; the connection of the Gmc. word is based on a semantic shift 'drive cattle' > 'graze cattle (pasture)' > 'guard', etc. The Gmc. formation is unique among the representatives of this root. Moreover, semantic problems are recognized by Seebold (1970: 249) who characterizes the connection of Gmc. *halda and PIE *kel- as 'völlig hypothetisch'. As an alternative, he proposes a connection with PIE √kwel- 'turn, move around sth.', cf. Skt. cárati 'move, walk', Gr. pélō 'move', OFris. hals 'neck (i.e. what turns)' (q.v.), with possible (but uncertain!) loss of the labial element of *kw > *hw before rounded vowels (and apparently subsequent spread to *kwel- >> *kel-). Apart from these formal problems, we have to assume a dental extension in Gmc. *hal-d-. Schrijver (p.c.) suggests to me a comparison with *kel- 'cover' [Pokorny 1959: 553-4] > 'protect', which has a parallel in Celtic, cf. Welsh celu < *kel- 'cover, hide'; gogel 'protect' < *upo-kel-. (Boutkan & Siebinga, 2013).
  Language Lexeme Phonological Meaning Notes Rating
1 Old Norse halda ˈhalda hold AF heldr ★★★ View
2 Icelandic halda ˈhald̥a hold ★★ View
3 Faroese halda ˈhald̥a hold ★★ View
4 Norwegian Riksmal holde ˈhɔ̀lːə hold ★★ View
5 Stavangersk hålla ˈhɔ̀lːa hold ★★★ View
6 Old Swedish halda ˈhalda hold ★★ View
7 Swedish hålla ˈhɔ̀lːa hold Removed FAST. ★★ View
8 Swedish Vilhelmina HAL HOL hold ★★ View
9 Swedish Uppland HALLA hold ★★ View
10 Elfdalian olda ˈòldɑ hold ★★ View
11 Danish holde ˈhʌlə hold ★★ View
12 Danish Fjolde hoold hoːlʲ hold ★★ View
13 Old Gutnish halda hold ★★ View
14 Gutnish Lau haldä ˈhaldɛ hold ★★ View
15 Old English hielt hold ★★★ View
16 English hold həʊld hold ★★ View
17 Frisian hâlde hɔːdə, hɔːrə hold Removed FESTHALDE. ★★ View
18 Dutch houden 'hɑudə(n) hold ★★ View
19 Flemish VASTHOUDEN hold split from DKB ★★ View
20 Afrikaans HOU hold ★★ View
21 Sranan HOLI hold ★★ View
22 German halten 'haltn̩ hold ★★ View
23 Luxembourgish halen hold ★★★ View
24 [Legacy] German Munich halten hold < Pr. Germ. *haldanaN, PIE origin uncertain. ★★★ View